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A patient is ill with diabetes mellitus that is accompanied by hyperglycemia of over 7,2 millimole/l on an empty stomach. The level of what blood plasma protein allows to estimate the glycemia rate retrospectively (4-8 weeks before examination)?
A patient ill with diabetes mellitus felt acute pain in his right foot. Objectively: foot thumb is black, foot tissues are edematous, there are foci of epidermis desquamation, stinking discharges. What clinicopathological form of necrosis is it?
A 4 y.o. child with signs of durative proteinic starvation was admitted to the hospital. The signs were as follows: growth inhibition, anemia, edemata, mental deficiency. Choose a cause of edemata development:
Examination of a patient revealed reduced contents of magnesium ions that are necessary for attachment of ribosomes to the granular endoplasmatic reticulum. It is known that it causes disturbance of protein biosynthesis. What stage of protein biosynthesis will be disturbed?
Analysis of blood serum of a patient revealed increase of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase level. What cytological changes can cause such a situation?
Autopsy of a 58 y.o. man revealed that bicuspid valve was deformed, thickened and unclosed. Microscopically: foci of collagen fibrilla are eosinophilic, react positively to fibrin. The most probably it is:
Labeled amino acids alanine and tryptophane were introduced to a mouse in order to study localization of protein biosynthesis in its cells. Around what organellas will the accumulation of labeled amino acids be observed?
A patient died under conditions of cardiovascular insufficiency. Autopsy results: postinfarction cardiosclerosis, myocardium hypertrophy and dilatation of its cavities, especially of its right ventricle. Liver is enlarged, its surface is smooth, incision revealed that it was plethoric, with dark-red specks against the background of brownish tissue. Histologically: plethora of central parts of lobules; peripheral parts around portal tracts contain hepatocytes in a state of adipose degeneration. How are these liver changes called?
A man was admitted to the hospital on the 5th day of disease that manifested itself by jaundice, muscle aching, chill, nose bleedings. In course of laboratory diagnostics a bacteriologist performed dark-field microscopy of the patient’s blood drop. Name a causative agent of this disease:
A patient has a transverse disruption of spinal cord below the IV thoracic segment. What changes of respiration will it cause?
A lightly dressed man is standing in a room, air temperature is +140C, windows and doors are closed. In what way does he emit heat the most actively?
A patient with infectious mononucleosis has been taking glucocorticoids for two weeks. He was brought into remission, but he fell ill with acute attack of chronic tonsillitis. What action of glucocorticoids caused this complication?
A peripheral segment of vagus nerve on a dog’s neck was being stimulated in course of an experiment. The following changes of cardiac activity could be meanwhile observed:
A patient was delivered to the hospital by an emergency team. Objectively: grave condition, unconscious, adynamy. Cutaneous surfaces are dry, eyes are sunken, face is cyanotic. There is tachycardia and smell of acetone from the mouth. Analysis results: blood glucose - 20,1 micromole/l (standard is 3,3-5,5 micromole/l), urine glucose - 3,5% (standard is - 0). What is the most probable diagnosis?
A 62 y.o. woman complains of frequent pains in the area of her chest and backbone, rib fractures. A doctor assumed myelomatosis (plasmocytoma). What of the following laboratory characteristics will be of the greatest diagnostical importance?
Having helped to eliminate consequences of a failure at a nuclear power plant, a worker got an irradiation doze of 500 roentgen. He complains of headache, nausea, dizziness. What changes in leukocytes quantity can be expected 10 hours after irradiation?
A woman who has been keeping to a clean-rice diet for a long time was diagnosed with polyneuritis (beri-beri). What vitamin deficit results in development of this disease?
Removal of gall bladder of a patient has disturbed processes of Ca absorption through the intestinal wall. What vitamin will stimulate this process?
A hepatitis outbreak was registered in a settlement. This episode is connected with water factor. What hepatitis virus could have caused the infective outbreak in this settlement?
Examination of a 43 y.o. patient revealed that his stomach has difficulties with digestion of protein food. Gastric juice analysis revealed low acidity. Function of which gastric cells is disturbed in this case?
A 16 y.o. boy from a countryside entered an educational establishment. Scheduled Manteux test revealed that the boy had negative reaction. What are the most reasonable actions in this case?
A patient consulted a doctor about bowels dysfunction. The doctor established symptoms of duodenitis and enteritis. Laboratory examination helped to make the following diagnosis: lambliosis. What medication should be administered?
Introduction of a pharmaceutical substance to an experimental animal resulted in reduction of salivation, pupil mydriasis. Next intravenous introduction of acetylcholine didn’t lead to any significant changes of heart rate. Name this substance:
Continuous taking of a drug can result in osteoporosis, erosion of stomach mucous membrane, hypokaliemia, retention of sodium and water, reduced content of corticotropin in blood. Name this drug:
From pharynx of a child with suspected diphtheria a pure culture of microorganisms was isolated. Their morphological, tinctorial, cultural and biochemical properties appeared to be typical for diphtheria causative agents. What study should be conducted in order to draw a conclusion that this is a pathogenic diphtheria bacillus?
Examination of a child revealed some whitish spots looking like coagulated milk on the mucous membrane of his cheeks and tongue. Analysis of smears revealed gram-positive oval yeast-like cells. What causative agents are they?
After intake of rich food a patient feels nausea and sluggishness; with time there appeared signs of steatorrhea. Blood cholesterine concentration is 9,2 micromole/l. This condition was caused by lack of:
Examination of a man who hadn’t been consuming fats but had been getting enough carbohydrates and proteins for a long time revealed dermatitis, poor wound healing, vision impairment. What is the probable cause of metabolic disorder?
RNA that contains AIDS virus penetrated into a leukocyte and by means of reverse transcriptase forced a cell to synthesize a viral DNA. This process is based upon:
A 27 y.o. patient put eye drops that contain penicillin. After a few minutes she felt itching and burning of her body, there appeared lip and eye-lid edemata; arterial pressure began to drop. What immunoglobulins took part in the development of this allergic reaction?
A 2 y.o. child has convulsions as a result of lowered concentration of calcium ions in blood plasma. It is caused by reduced function of:
Inflammation of a patient’s eye was accompanied by accumulation of turbid liquid with high protein at the bottom of anterior chamber that was called hypopyon. What process underlies the changes under observation?
A 48 y.o. patient was admitted to the hospital with complaints about weakness, irritability, sleep disturbance. Objectively: skin and scleras are yellow. In blood: conjugated bilirubin, cholalemia. Feces are acholic. Urine is of dark colour (bilirubin). What jaundice is it?
Bacteriological examination of a patient with food poisoning required inoculation of a pure culture of bacteria with the following properties: gram-negative movable bacillus that grows in the Endo’s medium in form of colourless colonies. A representative of which species caused this disease?
A patient was diagnosed with active focal pulmonary tuberculosis. What drug should be prescribed in the first place?
Examination of a young man in the AIDS centre produced a positive result of immune-enzyme assay with HIV antigens. Patient’s complaints about state of his health were absent. What can the positive result of immune-enzyme assay be evidence of?
Parents of a 10 y.o. boy consulted a doctor about extension of hair-covering, growth of beard and moustache, low voice. Intensified secretion of which hormone must be assumed?
Examination of coronary arteries revealed atherosclerotic calcific plaques that close vessel lumen by 1/3. The muscle has multiple whitish layers of connective tissue. What process was revealed in myocardium?
A patient ill with bronchial asthma didn’t inform his doctor that he had attacks of stenocardia. Doctor administered him a medication, which taking resulted in less frequent attacks of bronchial asthma, but stenocardia attacks became more frequent. What medication was administered?
A patient who has been suffering from cardiac insufficiency for several months has been taking digoxin on an outpatient basis. At a certain stage of treatment there appeared symptoms of drug overdose. What phenomenon underlies the development of this complication?
A child’s blood presents high content of galactose, glucose concentration is low. There are such presentations as cataract, mental deficiency, adipose degeneration of liver. What disease is it?
Histological specimen presents a vessel the wall of which consists of endothelium, basal membrane and loose connective tissue. What type of vessel is it?
On the 6th day of treatment a patient with acute renal insufficiency developed polyuria. Diuresis intensification at the beginning of polyuria stage of acute renal insufficiency is caused by:
Long-term starvation cure of a patient resulted in diminished ratio of albumines and globulines in plasma. What of the following will be result of these changes?
A patient suffers from vision impairment - hemeralopy (night blindness). What vitamin preparation should be administered the patient in order to restore his vision?
A 1 y.o. child with symptoms of muscle affection was admitted to the hospital. Examination revealed carnitine deficit in muscles. Biochemical base of this pathology is disturbed process of:
A patient suffers from severe postoperative pseudomonadous infection. What of the following antibiotics should be administered in this case?
A 9 m.o. child has delayed dentition, it is also out of order. Upper jaw configuration is horizontal (\"high\" palate); microscopically - irregular mineralization of tooth enamel, wrinkled enamel prisms, some of them are vacuolized. Predentin zone is extended; there are solitary denticles. What disease is it?
Examination of a patient revealed an abscess of pterygopalatine fossa. Where can the infection spread to unless the disease is managed in time?
Microscopical renal examination of a 36 y.o. woman who died from renal insufficiency revealed in the glomerules proliferation of capsule nephrothelium as well as of podocytes and phagocytes accompanied by formation of \\\"crescents\\\", capillary loop necrosis, fibrinous thrombs in their lumens; sclerosis and hyalinosis of glomerules, atrophy of tubules and fibrosis of renal stroma. What is the most probable diagnosis?
A forensic medical expert examines the body of a 58 y.o. man who had been consuming large amounts of alcohol for a long time and died at home. Microscopically: the right lung is dense and enlarged, its incision revealed that the tissue is greyish and homogenous, pleura is covered with greyish layers. Microscopically - alveolar cavities contain fibrin, hemolyzed erythrocytes. Make a diagnosis:
After a tooth extraction a patient felt persistent pain behind his breast bone. After sublingual intake of an antianginal drug the pain behind the breast bone disappeared, but the patient complained of headache and dizziness. What drug are these properties typical for?
A patient with fracture of his lower jaw was admitted to the maxillofacial department. It was decided to fix his bones surgically under anaesthetic. After intravenous introduction of muscle relaxant there arose short fibrillar contractions of the patient’s facial muscles. What muscle relaxant was applied?
Autopsy of a 56 y.o. man revealed in the right temporal part of brain a big focus of softened grey matter that was semi-liquid and light grey. Arteries of cerebral tela contain multiple whitish-yellow thickenings of intima that abruptly narrow the lumen. What is your diagnosis?
Neurological examination of a 65 y.o. patient revealed a haemorrhage within the superior temporal gyrus. In the blood supply area of which artery is it?
A 70 y.o. man has cut an abscess off in the area of mammiform process during shaving. Two days later he was admitted to the hospital with inflammation of arachnoid membranes. How did the infection penetrate into the cavity of skull?
A lymph node punctate of a patient with suspected protozoal disease was examined. Examination of the stained specimen (Romanovsky’s stain) revealed some crescent bodies with pointed end, blue cytoplasm and red nucleus. What protozoan were revealed in the smears?
An isolated cell of human heart automatically generates excitation impulses with frequency 60 times pro minute. What heart structure was this cell obtained from?
A patient has a haemorrhage into the posterior central gyrus. What type of sensitivity on the opposite side will be disturbed?
Analysis of a punction biopsy material of liver revealed hepatocyte dystrophy with necroses as well as sclerosis with disorder of beam and lobulous structure, with formation of pseudolobules and regenerative nodes. What is the most probable diagnosis:
A patient who had been working hard under conditions of elevated temperature of the environment has now a changed quantity of blood plasma proteins. What phenomenon is the case?
An experimental rat with extremity paralysis has no tendon and cutaneous reflexes, muscle tone is decreased, but muscles of the affected extremity maintain their ability to react with excitation to the direct action of continuous current. What type of paralysis is it?
A liquidator of a breakdown at a nuclear power plant who was irradiated complained about vomiting that occurs all of a sudden. What medication should be prescribed?
A laboratory received a material from a patient’s wound. Preliminary diagnosis is gaseous gangrene. What microbiological method should be applied to determine species of causative agent?
Examination of cell culture got from a patient with lysosomal pathology revealed accumulation of great quantity of lipids in the lysosomes. What of the following diseases is this disturbance typical for?
A patient got a craniocerebral trauma that resulted in right-side convergent strabismus. Damage of which craniocerebral nerve caused such consequences?
A rabbit’s nerve that innervates the right ear was cut and its right superior cervical ganglion was removed. Immediately after operation the temperature of ear skin was measured. It was revealed that the temperature of the rabbit’s ear skin on the side of denervation was by 1, 50C higher than on the opposite intact side. What of the following is the most probable explanation of the above-mentioned effects?
Autopsy of a man who died from influenza revealed that his heart was slightly enlarged, pastous, myocardium was dull and had specks. Microscopical examination of myocardium revealed signs of parenchymatous adipose and hydropic dystrophy; stroma was edematic with poor macrophagal and lymphocytic infiltration, vessels were plethoric; perivascular analysis revealed petechial hemorrhages. What type of myocarditis was developed in this case?
A patient with chronic cardiac insufficiency has been treated with cardiotonic drugs and a thiazide diuretic, but in spite of it there are still edemata and risk of ascites. What medication should be prescribed to amplify diuretic effect of the applied drugs?
A boy is 7 y.o. Objectively: against the background of hyperemic skin there is knobby bright-pink rash on his forehead, neck, at the bottom of abdomen, in the popliteal spaces; nasolabial triangle is pale. Examination of oropharyngeal surface revealed localized bright-red hyperemia; tonsils are swollen, soft, lacunas contain pus, tongue is crimson. Cervical lymph nodes are enlarged, dense and painful. What is the most probable diagnosis?
A patient complains of dryness of head skin, itching, fragility and loss of hair. After examination he was diagnosed with seborrhea. Disturbed activity of which cells caused this condition?
In the surgical department of a hospital there was an outbreak of hospital infection that showed itself in often postoperative wound abscesses. Bacteriological examination of pus revealed aurococcus. What examination shall be conducted to find out the source of this causative agent among the department personnel?
In course of an experiment a skeletal muscle is being stimulated by a series of electric impulses. What type of muscle contraction will arise, if every subsequent impulse comes in the period of relaxation of single muscle contraction?