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In a patient elevation of body temperature takes turns with drops down to normal levels during the day. The rise in temperature is observed periodically once in four days. Specify the type of temperature curve:
Parents of 5-year-old child report him of having frequent colds that develop into pneumonias, presence of purulent rashes on the skin. Laboratory tests have revealed the following: absence of immunoglobulins of any type, and naked cells are absent from the lymph nodes punctate. What kind of immune disorder is it?
For biochemical diagnostics of myocardial infarction it is necessary to measure activity of a number of enzymes and their isoenzymes. What enzymatic test is considered to be the best to prove or disprove the diagnosis of infarction in the early period after the chest pain is detected?
A patient complains of pain in the heart area during acute attack of gastric ulcer. What vegetative reflex can cause this painful feeling?
A patient is diagnosed with acute morphine hydrochloride intoxication. Prescribe an oxidizing agent for gastric lavage:
In the course of puncture biopsy of transplanted kidney the following has been revealed: diffuse infiltration of stroma by lymphocytes and plasmocytes and necrotic arteritis. What pathological process has developed in the transplant?
During cell division, DNA replication occurs by a signal from the cytoplasm, and a certain portion of the DNA helix unwinds and splits into two individual strains. What enzyme facilitates this process?
A female patient, having visited the factory premises with lots of dust in the air for the first time, has got cough and burning pain in the throat. What respiratory receptors, when irritated, cause this kind of reaction?
Since a patient has had myocardial infarction, his atria and ventricles contract independently from each other with a frequency of 60-70 and 35-40 per minute. Specify the type of heart block in this case:
A 35-year-old female patient has been hospitalised with acute intoxication caused by salts of high-density metals (lead, most probably). As a part of complex therapy the antidote that contains two active sulfhydric groups has been prescribed. Specify this anti-dote:
A 60-year-old male patient has type II diabetes. A doctor has prescribed him synthetic hypoglycemic long-acting drug that is sulfonylurea derivative. What drug is it?
A patient has been given atropine sulfate for rapid relief of spastic colon symptoms. The use of this drug is contraindicated during the following disease:
As an example of specific human parasites one can name Plasmodium falciparum, human pinworm and some others. The source of parasite invasion is always a human. Such specific human parasites cause the diseases that are called:
In an experiment a dog had been conditioned to salivate at the sight of food and a flash of light. After conditioning the reflex, the light was then paired with the bell. The dog didn’t start to salivate. What type of inhibition was observed?
A 63-year-old male patient with bladder atony had been prescribed a medication, which he had been arbitrarily taking at a higher dose. The patient developed hyperhydration, salivation, diarrhea, muscle spasms. The prescribed drug relates to the following group:
A 67-year-old male patient consumes eggs, pork fat, butter, milk and meat. Blood test results: cholesterol - 12,3 mmol/l, total lipids - 8,2 g/l, increased low-density lipoprotein fraction (LDL). What type of hyperlipoproteinemia is observed in the patient?
Tissue sampling of a 37-year-old male patient with chronic renal disease has revealed the following: sclerosis, lymphocytic and plasmocytic infiltration of renal pelvis and calices walls, dystrophy and atrophy of tubules. Remaining tubules are enlarged and stretched with colloid masses, epithelium is flattened out (\"scutiform\" or \"shield-shaped\" kidney). What is the most likely diagnosis?
During the histological study of cortical shaft, basophilic cells with developed synthesis organelles can be seen on the bone surface under the layer of fibers. These cells take part in bone tissue regeneration. What shaft layer are they located in?
Autopsy of a 50-year-old male who had tuberculosis revealed a dense gray-white nidus in form of a nodule 2 cm in diameter in the subpleural portion of the upper right lobe. The pleura in this region was thickened, in the pleural cavity there was a small amount of serous hemorrhagic fluid. Histological study of the region revealed some glandular structures with signs of cellular atypia and abnormal mitoses, which were found within the fibrous connective tissue. What other pathology had developed in the lungs?
In course of an experiment there has been an increase in the nerve conduction velocity. This may be caused by an increase in the concentration of the following ions that are present in the solution around the cell:
On the 24th day since the onset of disease, a male patient diagnosed with typhoid fever and undergoing treatment in an infectious diseases hospital has suddenly developed clinical presentations of acute abdomen leading to the death of the patient. During autopsy peritonitis has been revealed, with numerous ulcers covering the colon mucosa and reaching as deep as muscular and, in places, serous tunic. The ulcers have smooth edges and even floor. The intestinal wall is perforated. What stage of typhoid fever has the lethal complication arisen at?
An HIV-positive patient’s cause of death is acute pulmonary insufficiency resulting from pneumonia. Pathohistological investigation of lungs has revealed interstitial pneumonia, alveolocyte desquamation and their metamorphoses: alveolocyte enlargement, large intranuclear inclusions surrounded by lightly-colored areas. Transformed cells resemble owl’s eye. Name the pneumonia causative agent:
Nucleolar organizers of the 13-15, 21, 22 human chromosomes contain about 200 cluster genes that synthesize RNA. These regions of chromosomes bear the information on the following type of RNA:
The resuscitation unit has admitted a patient in grave condition. It is known that he had mistakenly taken sodium fluoride which blocks cytochrome oxidase. What type of hypoxia developed in the patient?
A patient who has recently arrived from an endemic area presents with elevated body temperature, headache, chills, malaise, that is with the symptoms which are typical for a common cold. What laboratory tests are necessary to prove or to disprove the diagnosis of malaria?
A patient has severe blood loss caused by an injury. What kind of dehydration will be observed in this particular case?
A 30-year-old patient has dyspnea fits, mostly at night. He has been diagnosed with bronchial asthma. What type of allergic reaction according to the Gell-Coombs classification is most likely in this case?
An outbreak of an intestinal infection occurred in a kindergarten on the eve of New Year holidays. Bacteriological examination of patients’ faeces didn’t reveal any pathogenic bacteria. Electron microscopy revealed roundish structures with clear outer edges and a thick core resembling a wheel. Specify the most likely causative agent of this infection:
After a road accident a victim has tachycardia, arterial blood pressure 130/90 mm Hg, tachypnoe, the skin is pale and dry, excitation of central nervous system is observed. What shock stage is the patient most likely in?
A fixed-run taxi passenger has a sudden and expressed attack of tachycardia. A doctor travelling by the same taxi has managed to slow down his heart rate by pressing upon the eyeballs and thus causing the following reflex:
Histological examination of biopsy samples taken from the thickened edges of a gastric ulcer revealed small clusters of small, markedly atypical hyperchromatic epithelial cells that were localized in the overdeveloped stroma. Specify the tumor:
In allergic diseases, a dramatic increase in basophilic leukocyte number in patients’ blood is observed. This phenomenon is due to the following basophil function:
A 47-year-old male patient developed intestinal colic against the background of essential hypertension. In this situation it would be most efficient to arrest the colic by using drugs of the following group:
A patient has been admitted to the contagious isolation ward with signs of jaundice caused by hepatitis virus. Which of the symptoms given below is strictly specific for hepatocellular jaundice?
Examination of the duodenal contents revealed some pear-shaped protozoa with two nuclei and four pairs of flagella. The organisms had also two axostyles between the nuclei and a ventral adhesive disc. What protozoan representative was found in the patient?
A blood drop has been put into a test tube with 0,3% solution of NaCl. What will happen to erythrocytes?
There are cortical and medullary substances separated by connective tissue layer in the endocrine gland specimen. Parenchyma cells make up three zones in cortical substance, with rounded masses in the superficial zone, parallel chords in the middle one, reticular structure of cell chords in the deep one. What gland is it?
An electron micrograph shows a cell of neural origin. The terminal portion of the cell dendrite has cylindrical shape and consists of 1000 closed membrane disks. What cell is represented by the micrograph?
Disruption of nerve fiber myelinogenesis causes neurological disorders and mental retardation. These symptoms are typical for hereditary and acquired alterations in the metabolism of:
A patient underwent surgical removal of a cavitary liver lesion 2 cm in diameter. It was revealed that the cavity wall was formed by dense fibrous connective tissue; the cavity contained muddy, thick, yellowish-greenish fluid with an unpleasant odor. Microscopically, the fluid consisted mainly of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. What pathological process are these morphological changes typical for?
A patient complains of photoreception disorder and frequent acute viral diseases. He has been prescribed a vitamin that affects photoreception processes by producing rhodopsin, the photosensitive pigment. What vitamin is it?
A 7-year-old boy got ill with diphtheria. On the third day he died of asphyxiation. At autopsy the mucosa of the larynx, trachea and bronchi had thickened, edematous, lustreless appearance and was covered with gray films which could be easily removed. Specify the type of laryngeal inflammation:
A public utility specialist went down into a sewer well without protection and after a while lost consciousness. Ambulance doctors diagnosed him with hydrogen sulfide intoxication. What type of hypoxia developed?
A child with a normal karyotype is diagnosed with cleft lip and hard palate, defects of the cardiovascular system, microcephaly. The child’s mother suffered rubella during pregnancy. This pathology in the child may be an example of:
A 28-year-old patient undergoing treatment in the pulmonological department has been diagnosed with pulmonary emphysema caused by splitting of alveolar septum by tissular tripsin. The disease is caused by the congenital deficiency of the following protein:
A patient with signs of osteoporosis and urolithiasis has been admitted to the endocrinology department. Blood test has revealed hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia. These changes are associated with abnormal synthesis of the following hormone:
During a surgery for femoral hernia a surgeon operates within the boundaries of femoral trigone. What structure makes up its upper margin?
A 19-year-old victim has been delivered to the casualty department with a cut wound of the trapezius muscle. Which of the cervical fasciae forms a sheath for this muscle?
A patient with acne has been prescribed doxycycline hydrochloride. What recommendations should be given to the patient, while he is taking this drug?
A patient has the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve shifted to the left. What blood changes induce this condition?
Administration of doxycycline hydrochloride caused an imbalance of the symbiotic intestinal microflora. Specify the kind of imbalance caused by the antibiotic therapy:
A patient with signs of emotional lability that result in troubled sleep has been prescribed nitrazepam. Specify the sleep-inducing mechanism of this drug:
A patient has been found to have a marked dilatation of saphenous veins in the region of anterior abdominal wall around the navel. This is symptomatic of pressure increase in the following vessel:
A patient with suspected tumor of lung had been admitted to the oncological department. Examination revealed localised pathology in the inferior lobe of the left lung. How many bronchopulmonary segments does this lobe have?