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A patient with severe poisoning was brought into the intensive care unit. In the course of complex treatment the subclavian vein needs to be catheterized for medicine administration. This vein is located in the following topographic structure:


A 45-year-old woman presents with insufficient secretion of enterokinase enzyme. Enterokinase deficiency can cause disturbances of the following digestive function :


A 7-year-old boy is diagnosed with anemia. Laboratory analysis detects pyruvate kinase deficiency in his erythrocytes. What process is disturbed in this boy playing the main role in anemia development in this case?


The Gerontology institute recommends older people to take vitamins complexes that contain vitamin E. What is the main function of this vitamin?


A woman with polyarticular rheumatoid arthritis was prescribed a non -steroidal anti-inflammatory drug -diclofenac sodium. After the patient has been taking it for some time, her concomitant disease exacerbated, which forced by the doctor to cancel the prescription of this drug. What concomitant disease could necessitate cancellation of this drug prescription?


Cells of a person working in the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone have undergone a mutation in DNA molecule. However with time the damaged interval of DNA molecule restored it’s initial structure with a specific enzyme. In this case the following occurred:


Ammonia is extremely toxic for human CNS. What is the main way of ammonia neutralization in the nervous tissue?


A 12- year-old boy with clinical presentation of influenza has developed respiratory mycoplasmosis. What type of infection has developed under these conditions?


Autopsy of a man, who served on a nuclear submarine , revealed the following pathologies: bone marrow atrophy (panmyelophthisis), anaemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphocytic disintegration in the lymph nodes, spleen ,gastrointestinal lymphatic system, and hemorrhages into the adrenal glands . What disease had developed in this case?


Chronic overdose of glucocorticoids leads to the development  of  hyperglycemia in a patient . Name the process of carbohydrate metabolism that results in elevated blood glucose levels:


A 3-year-old child has been brought by ambulance to the intensive care unit of the infectious diseases hospital. On examination the child is in severe condition, skin  and mucosa are dry , tissue turgor is reduced. The patient’s history states that profuse diarrhoea and recurrent vomiting were observed throughout the previous day after the child had eaten food products of poor quality. What type of salt and water imbalance is likely to have developed in the patient?


Autopsy of a 49-year-old woman who died of chronic kidney failure shows small dense striated kidneys with areas of haemorrhage. Microscopically nuclei of epithelial channels contain hematoxylin bodies, glomerular capillaries resemble wire loops, have thickened basement membranes, and in places contain hyaline thrombi and foci of fibrinoid necrosis. What is the most likely diagnosis?


Before a surgery the patient was prescribed a synthetic antiprotozoal drug for prevention of wound infection. The prescribed drug is highly effective against helicobacter pylori . Name this drug:


After an X-ray examination of the tuberculosis clinic patient, he was diagnosed with tumor of the right lung. During operation the surgeon removed the middle lobe of the patient’s right lung . This lobe includes:


What changes can be expected to occur in the isolated heart of a toad , if excessive amount of calcium chloride is introduced into its perfusate?


To treat the burns, a patient was prescribed a drug with antiseptic properties that are based on formation of atomic oxygen in the presence of organic substances. This drug has also an astringent ( anti-inflammatory) effect due to formation of albuminates. Name this drug:


A histological specimen demonstrates a vessel with the wall that consists of endothelium, basement membrane, and loose connective tissue. This vessel belongs to the following type:


Histological analysis of a biopsy skin sample obtained from a 24-year-old patient detects caseous necrosis surrounded with cellular infiltrate consisting of lymphocytes, among which there are single giant cells, proliferation of connective tissue and endovasculities are observed. Characterize this pathologic process:


Prolonged vomiting resulted in dehydration of the patient’s body. Under these conditions,  water retention in the body is ensured primarily due to increased secretion of the following hormone:


An ovarian tumor was detected in a woman. She is prescribed a surgery. What ligament should be severed by the surgeon to separate the patient’s ovary from the uterus?

21. Autopsy of a 60-year-old woman, who for a long time had been suffering from essential hypertension, shows significantly diminished kidneys (weight of both kidneys is 80g) with finely granular surface . Uniform renal cortical thinning can be observed on section. Name the described changes in the kidneys:
22. A 14-years-old adolescent has diphtheria. During the peak of the disease against the background of acute drop in body temperature and tachycardia the blood pressure is 70/50 mm Hg. What type of vascular tone disturbance is it?
23. Systemic blood pressure of a person equals 120/65 mmHg. Blood ejection into aorta occurs when left ventricular pressure exceeds:
24. A patient, who has been subsisting exclusively on polished rice, has developed polyneuritis due to thiamine deficiency. What substance is an indicator of such avitaminosis, when it is excreted with urine?
25. A man has been working for a long time in oil processing. What type of carcinogens does he encounter at his workplace?
A 35-year-old man with a hand injury came to the traumatology department. Examination revealed an incised wound on the palmar surface of the left hand; middle phalanges of digits II-IV cannot be flexed. What muscles are damaged?
In the haematology unit a patient with leukaemia was prescribed 5-Fluorouracil. This drug:
A patient was hospitalized in a comatose state. The patient has a 5-year-long history of diabetes mellitus type 2. Objectively respiration is noisy, deep, with acetone breath odor. Blood glucose is 15.2 mmol/l , ketone bodies – 100 micromol/l. These signs are characteristic of the following diabetes complication:
A 27-year-old woman has undergone a sector resection of a mammary gland tissue. Macroscopy detects a dense white node ,4cm in diameter, with clear margins in the excised tissue. Immediate histological analysis shows the tumor to consist of a large amount of fibrous stroma with stromal proliferation around the small canaliculi . Canalicular epithelium overlays the basement membrane and retains its polarity. Make the diagnosis:
The bacteriological laboratory needs to prepare for analysis of materials that are suspected to be contaminated with spores of anthrax causative agent. What diagnostic preparation allows for quick detection of these spores?