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While examining foot blood supply a doctor checks the pulsation of a large artery running in the separate fibrous channel in front of articulatio talocruralis between the tendons of long extensor muscles of hallux and toes. What artery is it?


A comminuted fracture of infraglenoid tubercle caused by shoulder joint injury has been detected during X-ray examination of a patient. What muscle tendon attached at this site has been damaged?


A 42-year-old male with a lesion of the ulnar nerve is unable to flex the II and V fingers to the midline. Which muscle function is impaired in this case?

4. After a craniocerebral injury a patient is unable to recognize objects by touch. What part of brain has been damaged?

As a result of a continuous chronic encephalopathy, a patient has developed spontaneous motions and a disorder of torso muscle tone. These are the symptoms of the disorder of the following conduction tract:


As a result of a craniocerebral injury, a patient has a decreased skin sensitivity. What area of the cerebral cortex is likely to be damaged?


A 40-year-old patient has ulcer perforation in the posterior wall of stomach. What anatomical structure will blood and stomach content leak to?


Angiocardiography of a 60-year-old male patient revealed constriction of a vessel located in the left coronary sulcus of the heart. What is the pathological vessel called?


A patient complains of pain in the right lateral abdomen. Palpation revealed a dense, immobile, tumor-like formation. A tumor is likely to be found in the following part of the digestive tube:


A female patient has facial neuritis that has caused mimetic paralysis and hearing impairment. Hearing impairment results from the paralysis of the following muscle:

11. The receptors under study provide transfer of information to the cortex without thalamic involvement. Specify these receptors:
12. During  an  animal  experiment, surgical damage of certain brain structures has caused deep prolonged sleep. What structure is most likely to cause such condition, if damaged?


A patient complains of acute pain attacks in the right lumbar region. During examination the nephrolithic obturation of the right ureter in the region between its abdominal and pelvic segments has been detected. What anatomical boundary exists between those two segments?

14. As a result of past encephalitis, a male patient has developed an increase in cerebrospinal fluid pressure in the right lateral ventricle. What can be the cause of this condition?
15. A male patient complains of skin insensitivity of inferior eyelid, external lateral surface of nose and upper lip. A doctor in the course of examination has revealed inflammation of the second branch of trigeminal nerve. What cranial foramen does this branch go through?


A patient with suspected tumor of lung had been admitted to the oncological department. Examination revealed localised pathology in the inferior lobe of the left lung. How many bronchopulmonary segments does this lobe have?

17. As a result of an injury, the integrity of the anterior spinal cord root was broken. Specify the neurons and their processes that had been damaged:
18. During the air and bone conduction tests it was revealed that in the left ear the tones were louder by bone conduction. This might be associated with the disease of:

In course of invasive abdominal surgery a surgeon has to locate the origin of the mesenteric root. Where is it normally localized?

20. As a result of a road accident a 37-year-old female victim developed urinary incontinence. What segments of the spinal cord had been damaged?
21. During a surgery for femoral hernia a surgeon operates within the boundaries of femoral trigone. What structure makes up its upper margin?

A 19-year-old victim has been delivered to the casualty department with a cut wound of the trapezius muscle. Which of the cervical fasciae forms a sheath for this muscle?


A 29-year-old male with a knife wound of neck presents with bleeding. During the initial debridement of the wound the surgeon revealed the injury of a vessel found along the lateral edge of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Specify this vessel:


A patient has been found to have a marked dilatation of saphenous veins in the region of anterior abdominal wall around the navel. This is symptomatic of pressure increase in the following vessel:


As  a  result   of  an  injury  a  patient cannot  extend  his arm at the  elbow. This may  cause  abnormal  functioning of  the following muscle:


A casualty has a fracture in the region of the inner surface of the left ankle. What is the most likely site for the fracture?

27. A  patient consulted   a  doctor   about being unable  to abduct  his right arm after a past trauma. Examination revealed  that the   passive  movements  were  not   limited.  The  patient was found  to  have  the atrophy of the deltoid muscle. What nerve is damaged?

After  a trauma of the  upper  third  of the anterior forearm  a patient exhibits difficult  pronation, weakening  of palmar flexor muscles  and  impaired skin sensitivity of 1-3 fingers. Which nerve  has been damaged?

29. On  examination a patient was found to have medial strabismus, the inward deviation  of the  eyeball  and  inability  to abduct  the eyeball  outwards.  What  nerve is damaged?

As a result of an injury of the knee joint  a patient shows a drawer  sign, that  is the  anterior and  posterior displacement of the tibia relative  to the femur. What ligaments  are damaged?


Examination of a patient with ischemic heart    disease    revealed    the    impaired venous   blood   flow  in  the   territory  of the  cardiac  vein  running  in the  anterior interventricular sulcus of heart. What vein is it?

32. For   the   direct   injection   of   medications   into  the  liver  surgeons   use  the round ligament of liver. This manipulation involves bougienage (lumen dilatation) of the following vessel:

After  the  diagnostic  tests  a 40-year- old male has been  referred for the lymphography of the  thoracic  cavity. The surgeon   revealed   that   the   tumor   had affected an organ whose lymphatic vessels drain directly into the thoracic duct. Specify this organ:

34. After a car accident a 23-year-old male presented to the hospital with a cut wound of  the  anteromedial  region  of  shoulder and  arterial bleeding.  Which  artery  was damaged?

During  the operation on the small intestine  the  surgeon   revealed   an  area of  the  mucous  membrane with  a  single longitudinal fold among the circular folds. Which portion of the small intestine is this structure typical for?

36. A surgeon  examined the  patient and found  the injury of the upper  third of the kidney.  Considering  the  syntopy  of  the left kidney, the intactness of the following organ should be checked at the same time:

After   resection of  the  middle  third of the  femoral  artery  obliterated by a thrombus the limb is supplied  with blood through the  bypasses.  What  artery  plays the  main  part  in  the  restoration of  the blood flow?


A patient has been hospitalized for a suspected  tumor  of the  prostate. During the surgery, it was revealed  that the tumor invaded  the  bladder. Which  part  of  the bladder was affected?

39. A casualty with an injury of the temporal region has been  diagnosed  with epidural hematoma. Which of the arteries is most likely to be damaged?

When examining a patient, the doctor revealed  a tumor  of the  bronchus  which borders  on the  aorta.  Which  bronchus  is affected?


A patient has a right-sided  fracture in the region of the frontal third of mandible accompanied by a haematoma in the region of chin. It is caused by the injury of the following artery:


As a result  of a cold a patient has the abnormal pain and temperature sensitivity of the frontal  2/3 of his tongue.  Which nerve must have been damaged?


After  a trauma of soft  tissues  in the region  of the  posterior surface  of medial condyle  of humerus  a patient has  got a skin prickle  of medial  forearm surface. Which of the listed nerves is located in the affected region?

44. A boy has fallen down from a tree. Now he finds it difficult to abduct his arm into horizontal position.  Which muscle is most likely to be injured?


A 28 year old woman  has  been  diagnosed with extrauterine pregnancy complicated by the fallopian tube rupture. The blood is most likely to penetrate the following peritoneal space:


A 70 year old female patient was diagnosed  with fracture of left femoral neck accompanied by disruption of ligament  of head  of femur. The branch of the following artery is damaged:


As a result of a trauma a patient has damaged  anterior  roots   of  spinal  cord. What structures have been affected?

48. During  cytoscopy  mucous  membrane of urinary  bladder normally  makes  folds except  for  a  single  triangular area  with smooth  mucosa. This triangle is located in the following part of urinary bladder:
49. A  surgeon  has  to  find  the  common hepatic duct during the operative intervention on account of concrements in the  gall ducts. The  common  hepatic  duct is located  between the leaves of:

A patient complains about  impaired evacuatory  function   of  stomach   (long-term retention of food in stomach). Examination revealed a tumour of initial part  of duodenum. Specify localization of the tumour:


In  course  of  an  operation surgeon removed a part  of a lung that  was ventilated  by a tertiary bronchus  accompanied by branches  of pulmonary artery  and other vessels. What part of a lung was removed?


While  playing  a  child  got  a  punch in  the   presternum  region.   As  a  result of  this  trauma an  organ  located  behind the presternum was damaged.  Name  this organ:


A  patient has  been  diagnosed   with  a  compression fracture  of  a  lumbar vertebra.  As  a  result   he  has  a  considerable  increase    in   curvature   of   the lumbar  lordosis.  Which ligament  damage can induce such changes in the spine curvature?


In order  to prevent massive hemorrhage in the  region  of oral  cavity floor  it is required to  ligate  an  artery which is located  within Pirogov’s triangle. What artery is it?


Examination of a 6-month-old child revealed  a delay in closure  of the  occipital  fontanelle. When  should  it  normally close?


A man with a stab wound in the region of the quadrilateral foramen  consulted a doctor  about  it. Examination revealed that  the  injured  couldn’t abduct  his arm from the  body. What  nerve  is most likely damaged?

57. A victim of an accident  has bleeding from the  soft tissues  anteriad the  mandibular  angle.  Which  vessel  should  be  ligated for the bleeding arrest?

A 38-year-old  patient came to a traumatology centre    and    complained about  an injury of his right hand. Objectively: the  patient has a cut  wound  in the region of the thenar eminence on the right hand; distal phalanx  of the I finger cannot be flexed. What muscle was injured?


An  18-year-old  man  was delivered  to the hospital  after a road accident.  Examination  at the traumatological department revealed multiple injuries of soft tissues of face in the region of the medial eye angle. The injuries caused massive hemorrhage. What   arterial  anastomosis  might   have been damaged in this region?

60. A weightlifter  has a disruption of thoracic  lymphatic  duct  as a result  of lifting a weight. Choose  the most likely site of injury:
61. A woman suffering from osteochondrosis has acute pain in her humeral articulation that  gets worse  when  she tries  to abduct her  shoulder. These  symptoms  might  be caused by damage of the following nerve:
62. A  patient consulted  a doctor  about loss of taste sensitivity on the tongue  root. The  doctor  revealed  that  it is caused  by nerve affection. Which nerve is it?

An older  woman  has been  hospitalised for acute pain and edema  of the right hip joint that appeared after a fall. Objectively: the  hip is adduced inwards,  hip joint movements are  impaired. The  patient is most  likely  to  have  a  fracture of  the following bone or bone part:

64. While  performing an inguinal  canal operation on account  of hernia  a surgeon damaged the canal\\\\\\\'s contents. What exactly was damaged?


Surgical approach to the thyroid gland from the transverse (collar) approach involves opening of interaponeurotic suprasternal space. What anatomic structure localized in this space is dangerous to be damaged?


An  injured  person  was delivered  to the  hospital  with a penetrating wound  in the  left lateral  region  of abdomen. What part  of the  large  intestine is most  likely damaged?

67. In course of laparotomy a surgeon revealed  gangrenous lesion  of  descending colon. It was caused  by thrombosis of the following artery:

Inflammation of  the  tympanic  cavity (purulent otitis  media)  was  complicated by  inflammation of  mammillary   process sockets.   What   wall  of  tympanic   cavity did the pus penetrate into the sockets through?


A  patient caught  a  cold  after  which  there   appeared facial  expression disorder.  He cannot  close his eyes, raise his eyebrows,  bare  his teeth.  What  nerve  is damaged?


A  patient  complained about   being unable   to  adduct   and  abduct   fingers  in the metacarpophalangeal articulations towards   and  away  from  the  3rd  finger. Which muscles’ function  is impaired?

71. A    patient   has    difficulties    with hand movement. Examination revealed inflammation of common  synovial sheath of  flexor  muscles.  It  is known  from  the patient’s   anamnesis  that   he  got  a  stab wound of finger a week ago. Which finger was most probably  damaged?
72. Examination of a newborn  boy’s genitalia   revealed   an   urethral  hiatus   that opens on the undersite of his penis. What malformation is it?
73. A   patient  with   cholelithiasis    fell ill  with  mechanic   jaundice.   Examination  revealed   that   the  stone   was  in  the common   bile  duct.  What   bile-excreting ducts make up the obturated duct?
74. Examination  of  a  patient revealed hypertrophy  and   inflammation  of lymphoid tissue, edema of mucous membrane between palatine arches (acute tonsillitis).   What   tonsil   is  normally   situated in this area?

Examination of a patient with impaired  blood coagulation revealed thrombosis of a branch of inferior mesenteric artery.  What  bowel  segment is damaged?


Roentgenological   examination   of skull base bones  revealed  enlargement of sellar  cavity,  thinning  of anterior clinoid processes,  destruction of  different   parts, destruction of different parts of sella turcica. Such bone destruction might be caused by a tumour of the following endocrinous gland:


A patient was admitted to the surgical department with inguinal hernia. During  the  operation the  surgeon   performs plastic surgery on posterior wall of inguinal canal. What structure forms this wall?


A    patient   was    diagnosed   with paralysis of facial and masticatory muscles.  The   haematoma  is  inside  the genu of internal capsule. What conduction tract is damaged?


A  foreign   body  (a  button)  closed space of the right superior lobar bronchus. What segments  of the right lung won’t be supplied with air?

80. A patient was diagnosed with bartholinitis (inflammation of greater vulvovaginal glands). In which organ of urogenital system are these  glands localized?


Ultrasonic examination of a patient revealed   aneurism   in  the  area  of  aortic arch that caused alteration of vocal function of larynx. What nerve was constricted?


In course of an experiment thalamocortical tracts  of an animal  were cut. What type of sensory perception remained intact?

83. Examination of a 2-year-old  child revealed  physical  developmental lag, the child  often   has  pneumonias.  The  child was diagnosed  with nonclosure of ductus arteriosus. Haemodynamics disorder  was caused  by the  intercommunication of the following vessels:

It is necessary  to take  the cerebrospinal  fluid  from  a  patient with  suspected inflammation of brain  tunics.  Diagnostic puncture was performed between the arches  of  the  lumbar   vertebras. During the puncture the needle  went through the following ligament:


A 53-year-old  female  patient was diagnosed  with liver rupture resulting  from a  blunt   abdominal  injury.  The  escaped blood  will be  assembled   in  the  following anatomic  formation:


A  patient complains  about  edemata of  legs,  skin  cyanosis,   small  ulcers   on one  side  of  the  lateral  condyle.  Examination  revealed  a swelling, enlarged veins, formation of nodes.  The  pathological process has started in the following vein:

87. During   an  experiment  the   dorsal roots of the spinal cord of an animal have been  cut. What  changes  will be observed in the innervation zone?

A young man complains  about urination disorder. Examination of the external  genitals revealed  that the urethra was split and urine  could flow out of this orifice. What anomaly of the external genitals development is it?

89. A man suffering from osteochondrosis got acute  pain  in the  abdominal muscles (lateral and  anterior). During   objective examination a physician diagnosticated increased pain sensitivity of skin in the hypogastric region. This pain might be caused by affection of the following nerve:

A man  with an injury  in the  nuchal region (regio nuchae) was admitted to the resuscitation department. What  muscle occupies this region?

91. A patient has lost skin sensitivity  in the region of the medial surface of his shoulder. This  is the  result  of dysfunction of the following nerve:

After  a road  accident  a  driver  was delivered to the hospital  with an injury of the  medial  epicondyle  of humerus.  What nerve might be damaged in this case?


A woman underwent an operation on account  of extrauterine (tubal) pregnancy. In  course  of  the  operation the  surgeon should  ligate the branches  of the following arteries:

94. A 6 month  old baby ill with bronchitis was taken  for an X-ray of chest. Apart of changes associated with bronchi the X-ray film showed  a shadow  of  thymus  gland. What might have caused such changes?

A  35  year  old  man  with  a  trauma of his left hand was admitted to the traumatology  department.   Objectively: cut wound of palmar  surface of left hand; middle  phalanxes  of  II–V  fingers  don’t bend. What muscles are damaged?


A patient was admitted to the surgical department with suspected  inflammation of Meckel’s diverticulum. What part of bowels  should  be  examined in  order  to discover  the diverticulum in course  of an operation?


The cerebrospinal fluid is being examined for the purpose of differential meningitis diagnostics.  At what site is the lumbar puncture safe?

98. A patient has a deep cut wound on the posterior surface of his shoulder in its middle third. What muscle might be injured?

While performing an operation in the area  of axillary  crease  a surgeon  has  to define  an  arterial vessel  surrounded by fascicles of brachial plexus. What artery is it?


In course  of a small pelvis operation it  became   necessary   to  ligate  an  ovarian  artery.  What  formation may  be  accidentally ligated together with it?


A  patient  with  a  knife  wound   in the  left lumbar  part  was delivered  to the emergency  hospital.  In course  of operation  a surgeon  found  that  internal organs were  not  damaged but  the  knife  injured one   of  muscles   of  renal   pelvis.  What muscle is it?


A man with cut wound of his right foot sole was admitted to the hospital ward. The patient has limited elevation of the lateral foot edge. In course of wound management the injury of a muscle tendon was revealed. What muscle is injured?

103. A patient with neuritis of femoral nerve has disturbed flexion of thigh as well as disturbed crus extension in the knee joint. What muscle’s function is disturbed?
104. An injured man has bleeding from branches of carotid artery. For a temporary arrest of bleeding it is necessary to press the carotid artery to the tubercle of a cervical vertebra. Which vertebra is it?

As a result of an accident a patient has intense painfulness and edema of the anterior crus surface; dorsal flexion of foot is hindered. Function of which crus muscle is most likely to be disturbed?


After a 2 y.o. child has had flu, there appeared complaints about ear ache. A doctor revealed hearing impairment and inflammation of the middle ear. How did the infection penetrate into the middle ear?

107. A patient’s knee joint doesn’t extend, there is no knee-jerk reflex, skin sensitivity of the anterior femoral surface is disturbed. What nerve structures are damaged?


A 70 y.o. man has cut an abscess off in the area of mammiform process during shaving. Two days later he was admitted to the hospital with inflammation of arachnoid membranes. How did the infection penetrate into the cavity of skull?

109. In case of a penetrating wound of the anterior abdominal wall the wound tract went above the lesser curvature of stomach. What peritoneum formation is most likely to be injured?


After a trauma a 44-year-old patient had a rupture of left palm muscle tendons and of the superficial blood vessels. After operation and removal of the most part of the necrotically changed muscle tissue the bloodstream was normalized. What vessels have helped to restore the bloodstream?