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A 65 year old man suffering from gout complains of kidney pain. Ultrasound examination revealed renal calculi. The most probable cause of calculi formation is the strengthened concentration of the following substance:
A patient consulted a doctor about symmetric dermatitis of open skin areas. It was found out that the patient lived mostly on cereals and ate too little meat, milk and eggs. What vitamin deficiency is the most evident?
A 9-month-old infant is fed with artificial formulas with unbalanced vitamin B6 concentration. The infant presents with pellagral dermatitis, convulsions, anemia. Convulsion development might be caused by the disturbed formation of:
Examination of a patient suffering from chronic hepatitis revealed a significant decrease in the synthesis and secretion of bile acids. What process will be mainly disturbed in the patient’s bowels?
Products of some proteins hydrolysis and modification are the biologically active substances called hormones. Lipotropin, corticotropin, melanotropin and endorphins are synthesized in the hypophysis of the following protein:
Nappies of a newborn have dark spots being the evidence of homogentisic acid formation. This is caused by the metabolic disorder of the following substance:
A mother consulted a doctor about her 5-year-old child who develops erythemas, vesicular rash and skin itch under the influence of sun. Laboratory studies revealed decreased iron concentration in the blood serum, increased uroporphyrinogen I excretion with the urine. What is the most likely inherited pathology in this child?
Laboratory examination of a child revealed increased concentration of leucine, valine, isoleucine and their ketoderivatives in blood and urine. Urine smelt of maple syrup. This disease is characterized by the deficit of the following enzyme:
A sportsman needs to improve his sporting results. He was recommended to take a preparation that contains carnitine. What process is activated the most by this compound?
A patient complained about dizziness, memory impairment, periodical convulsions. It was revealed that these changes were caused by a product of decarboxylation of glutamic acid. Name this product:
A patient suffers from hepatocirrhosis. State of antitoxic liver function can be characterized by examination of the following substance excreted by urine:
A clinic observes a 49 year old patient with significant prolongation of coagulation time, gastrointestinal hemorrhages, subcutaneous hematomas. These symptoms might be explained by the deficiency of the following vitamin:
According to the model of double DNA helix that was suggested by Watson and Creek, it was established that one of chains would not be lost during replication and the second chain would be synthesized complementary to the first one. What way of replication is it?
A patient underwent an operation on account of gall bladder excision that resulted in obstruction of Ca absorption through the bowels wall. What vitamin will stimulate this process?
A 46 year old woman suffering from chololithiasis developed jaundice. Her urine became dark-yellow and feces became colourless. Blood serum will have the highest concentration of the following substance:
A 48 year old patient complained about intense pain, slight swelling and reddening of skin over the joints, temperature rise up to 38oC . Blood analysis revealed high concentration of urates. This condition might be caused by disturbed metabolism of:
Examination of a patient suffering from frequent hemorrhages in the inner organs and mucous membranes revealed proline and lysine being included in collagen fibers. Impairment of their hydroxylation is caused by lack of the following vitamin:
Labelled amino acids alanine and tryptophane were injected to a mouse in order to study localization of protein synthesis in its cells. The labelled amino acids will be accumulated near the following organellas:
A full-term newborn child has yellowish skin and mucous membranes. This might be probably caused by temporary deficiency of the following enzyme:
A patient has low rate of magnesium ions that are necessary for affixion of ribosomes to the endoplasmic reticulum. It is known that it causes disturbance of protein biosynthesis. At what stage is protein biosynthesis impaired?
Blood of a 12 year old boy presents low concentration of uric acid and accumulation of xanthine and hypoxanthine. This child has genetic defect of the following enzyme:
Study of conversion of a food colouring agent revealed that neutralization of this xenobiotic takes place only in one phase - microsomal oxidation. Name a component of this phase:
A child has mental and physical retardation, grave damage of internal connective tissue. Urine analysis reveals keratan sulfates. What metabolic process is disturbed?
A newborn child was found to have reduced intensity of sucking, frequent vomiting, hypotonia. Urine and blood exhibit increased concentration of citrulline. What metabolic process is disturbed?
A newborn develops dyspepsia after the milk feeding. When the milk is substituted by the glucose solution the dyspepsia symptoms disappear. The newborn has the subnormal activity of the following enzyme:
During starvation muscle proteins break up into free amino acids. These compounds will be the most probably involved into the following process:
During hypersensitivity test a patient got subcutaneous injection of an antigen which caused reddening of skin, edema, pain as a result of histamine action. This biogenic amine is generated as a result of transformation of the following histidine amino acid:
Vitamin B1 deficiency causes disturbance of oxidative decarboxylation of α-ketoglutaric acid. This leads to the impaired synthesis of the following coenzyme:
Jaundice treatment involves administration of barbiturates inducing the synthesis of UDP-glucuronyl transferase. A medicinal effect is caused by the production of:
It was revealed that T-lymphocytes were affected by HIV. Virus enzyme - reverse transcriptase (RNA-dependent DNA-polymerase) - catalyzes the synthesis of:
Urine analysis of a 12-year-old boy reveals high concentration of all aliphatic amino acids with the highest excretion of cystine and cysteine. US of kidneys revealed kidney concrements. What is the most likely pathology?
A doctor recommends a patient with duodenal ulcer to drink cabbage and potato juice after the therapy course. Which substances contained in these vegetables help to heal and prevent the ulcers?
A patient has pellagra. Interrogation revealed that he had lived mostly on maize for a long time and eaten little meat. This disease had been caused by the deficit of the following substance in the maize:
Researchers isolated 5 isoenzymic forms of lactate dehydrogenase from the human blood serum and studied their properties. What property indicates that the isoenzymic forms were isolated from the same enzyme?
A 10-year-old girl has a history of repeated acute respiratory viral infection. After recovering she presents with multiple petechial hemorrhages on the sites of friction from clothing rubbing the skin. What kind of hypovitaminosis has this girl?
A patient presents with dysfunction of cerebral cortex accompanied by epileptic seizures. He has been administered a biogenic amine synthesized from glutamate and responsible for central inhibition. What substance is it?
Osteolaterism is characterized by a decrease in collagen strength caused by much less intensive formation of cross-links in collagen fibrils. This phenomenon is caused by the low activity of the following enzyme:
A patient has been diagnosed with alkaptonuria. Choose an enzyme whose deficiency can be the reason for this pathology:
A 36 year old female patient has a history of collagen disease. Urine analysis is likely to reveal an increased concentration of the following metabolite:
Vitamin A together with specific cytoreceptors penetrates through the nuclear membranes, induces transcription processes that stimulate growth and differentiation of cells. This biological function is realized by the following form of vitamin A:
After severe viral hepatitis a 4 year old boy presents with vomiting, occasional loss of consciousness, convulsions. Blood test revealed hyperammoniemia. Such condition is caused by a disorder of the following biochemical hepatic process:
Before the cells can utilize the glucose, it is first transported from the extracellular space through the plasmatic membrane inside them. This process is stimulated by the following hormone:
A 2 year old child with mental and physical retardation has been delivered to a hospital. He presents with frequent vomiting after having meals. There is phenylpyruvic acid in urine. Which metabolism abnormality is the reason for this pathology?
Examination of a child who hasn’t got fresh fruit and vegetables during winter revealed numerous subcutaneous hemorrhages, gingivitis, carious cavities in teeth. What vitamin combination should be prescribed in this case?
An experimental animal that was kept on protein-free diet developed fatty liver infiltration, in particular as a result of deficiency of methylating agents. This is caused by disturbed generation of the following metabolite:
Characteristic sign of glycogenosis is muscle pain during physical work. Blood examination reveals usually hypoglycemia. This pathology is caused by congenital deficiency of the following enzyme:
At the stage of translation in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, the ribosome moves along the mRNA. Amino acids are joined together by peptide bonds in a specific sequence, and thus polypeptide synthesis takes place. The sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide corresponds to the sequence of:
The genetic defect of pyruvate carboxylase deficiency is the cause of delayed physical and mental development and early death in children. This defect is characterized by lacticemia, lactaciduria, disorder of a number of metabolic pathways. In particular, the following process is inhibited:
An experiment proved that UV- irradiated skin cells of patients with xeroderma pigmentosum restore the native structure of DNA slower than the cells of healthy people due to the defect in repair enzyme. What enzyme takes part in this process?
For the study of serum proteins various physical and physicochemical methods can be used. In particular, serum albumins and globulins can be separated by this method:
It is known that the monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzyme plays an important part in the metabolism of catecholamine neurotransmitters. In what way does the enzyme inactivate these neurotransmitters (norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine)?
By the decarboxylation of glutamate in the CNS an inhibitory mediator is formed. Name it:
An unconscious patient was taken by ambulance to the hospital. On objective examination the patient was found to have no reflexes, periodical convulsions, irregular breathing. After laboratory examination the patient was diagnosed with hepatic coma. Disorders of the central nervous system develop due to the accumulation of the following metabolite:
Hemoglobin catabolism results in release of iron which is transported to the bone marrow by a certain transfer protein and used again for the synthesis of hemoglobin. Specify this transfer protein:
Pterin derivatives (aminopterin and methotrexate) are the inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase, so that they inhibit the regeneration of tetrahydrofolic acid from dihydrofolate. These drugs inhibit the intermolecular transfer of monocarbon groups, thus suppressing the synthesis of the following polymer:
A 28-year-old patient undergoing treatment in the pulmonological department has been diagnosed with pulmonary emphysema caused by splitting of alveolar septum by tissular tripsin. The disease is caused by the congenital deficiency of the following protein:
A patient diagnosed with focal tuberculosis of the upper lobe of the right lung had been taking isoniazid as a part of combination therapy. After some time, the patient reported of muscle weakness, decreased skin sensitivity, blurred vision, impaired motor coordination. Which vitamin preparation should be used to address these phenomena?
Nucleolar organizers of the 13-15, 21, 22 human chromosomes contain about 200 cluster genes that synthesize RNA. These regions of chromosomes bear the information on the following type of RNA:
Disruption of nerve fiber myelinogenesis causes neurological disorders and mental retardation. These symptoms are typical for hereditary and acquired alterations in the metabolism of:
A child has a history of hepatomegaly, hypoglycemia, seizures, especially on an empty stomach and in stressful situations. The child is diagnosed with Gierke’s disease. This disease is caused by the genetic defect of the following enzyme:
In case of alkaptonuria, homogentisic acid is excreted in urine in large amounts. The development of this disease is associated with a disorder of metabolism of the following amino acid:
Patients with erythropoietic porphyria (Gunther’s disease) have teeth that fluoresce with bright red color when subjected to ultraviolet radiation; their skin is light-sensitive, urine is red-colored. What enzyme can cause this disease, when it is deficient?
According to the results of glucose tolerance test, the patient has no disorder of carbohydrate tolerance. Despite that, glucose is detected in the patients’ urine (5 mmol/l). The patient has been diagnosed with renal diabetes. What renal changes cause glucosuria in this case?
A patient with hereditary hyperammonemia due to a disorder of ornithine cycle has developed secondary orotaciduria. The increased synthesis of orotic acid is caused by an increase in the following metabolite of ornithine cycle:
A 39-year-old female patient with a history of diabetes was hospitalized in a precomatose state for diabetic ketoacidosis. This condition had been caused by an increase in the following metabolite level:
A 53-year-old male patient is diagnosed with Paget’s disease. The concentration of oxyproline in daily urine is sharply increased, which primarily means intensified disintegration of:
A 46-year-old female patient consulted a doctor about pain in the small joints of the upper and lower limbs. The joints are enlarged and shaped like thickened nodes. Serum test revealed an increase in urate concentration. This might be caused by a disorder in metabolism of:
Those organisms which in the process of evolution failed to develop protection from H2O2 can exist only in anaerobic conditions. Which of the following enzymes can break hydrogen peroxide down?
A patient has a critical impairment of protein, fat and hydrocarbon digestion. Most likely it has been caused by low secretion of the following digestive juice: