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1. A  3 year  old  child  with  symptoms o stomatitis,    gingiviti and    dermatitis   o open   ski areas   was   delivered to a hospital. Examination revealed inherited  disturbancof  neutral  amino acid transporting in the bowels. These symptoms  were  caused  by the  deficiency of the following vitamin:

A 65 year old man suffering from gout complains of kidney pain. Ultrasound examination revealed   renal  calculi.  The most probable cause of calculi formation is the  strengthened concentration of the following substance:


A  patient consulted   a  doctor   about symmetric  dermatitis of open  skin areas. It  was  found  out  that  the  patient lived mostly on cereals  and ate too little meat, milk and eggs. What vitamin deficiency is the most evident?


A 9-month-old infant is fed with artificial formulas  with  unbalanced vitamin B6     concentration.  The   infant   presents with pellagral  dermatitis, convulsions, anemia. Convulsion  development might be caused by the disturbed formation of:

5. Cytoplasm of the myocytes contains a lot of dissolved metabolites resulting from glucose  oxidation.   Name  the  metabolite that turns directly into lactate:
6. On the ground  of clinical presentations    a    patient   was   prescribed   pyridoxal phosphate. This medication is recommended for correction of the following processes:
7. You   are   studying   functioning   of a  bacteria  operon.  The   operator  gene has   been   released  from   the   repressor gene.  Immediately after  this the  following process will start in the cell:

Examination of  a  patient suffering from  chronic  hepatitis revealed  a significant decrease in the synthesis and secretion of bile acids. What process will be mainly disturbed in the patient’s bowels?


Products of some  proteins hydrolysis and   modification    are   the   biologically active substances  called hormones. Lipotropin,    corticotropin,    melanotropin and endorphins are synthesized  in the hypophysis  of the following protein:


Nappies  of a newborn have dark spots being  the  evidence  of homogentisic acid formation. This is caused by the metabolic disorder  of the following substance:

11. A 1,5-year-old child presents with both mental  and  physical  lag, decolorizing  of skin and  hair,  decrease in catecholamine concentration in blood. When a few drops of 5% solution  of trichloroacetic iron had been  added  to the  child’s urine  it turned olive green. Such alteration are typical for the following pathology of the amino acid metabolism:

A mother consulted  a doctor  about  her 5-year-old  child who develops  erythemas, vesicular   rash  and  skin  itch  under   the influence    of   sun.   Laboratory   studies revealed  decreased iron  concentration in the  blood  serum,  increased  uroporphyrinogen  I excretion with the urine.  What  is the most likely inherited pathology  in this child?

13. When  blood  circulation  in the damaged tissue  is restored, then  lactate accumulation   comes    to    a   stop    and glucose consumption decelerates. These metabolic changes are caused  by activation of the following process:

Laboratory  examination of  a  child revealed  increased  concentration of leucine, valine,  isoleucine  and  their  ketoderivatives in blood and urine. Urine  smelt of maple syrup. This disease is characterized by the deficit of the following enzyme:


A  sportsman needs  to  improve  his sporting  results. He was recommended to take a preparation that contains  carnitine. What process is activated the most by this compound?


A patient complained about  dizziness,  memory   impairment, periodical convulsions. It was revealed  that these changes were caused by a product of decarboxylation of  glutamic  acid.  Name this product:

17. A 35 year old man consulted  a dentist  about   reduced  density   of  dental   tissue,  high  fragility  of  teeth  during  eating  solid  food.   This  patient  suffers  the most probably from the deficiency of the following mineral element:  
18. A  cerebral trauma caused  increased ammonia  generation. What amino acid participates in the  excretion of ammonia from the cerebral tissue?

A   patient  suffers   from   hepatocirrhosis.  State  of  antitoxic  liver  function can  be  characterized by  examination of the following substance  excreted by urine:


A   clinic   observes   a   49  year   old patient   with    significant    prolongation of coagulation time, gastrointestinal hemorrhages, subcutaneous hematomas. These  symptoms  might  be  explained  by the deficiency of the following vitamin:


According  to  the  model   of  double DNA  helix that was suggested  by Watson and Creek,  it was established that  one of chains would not be lost during replication and  the  second  chain  would  be synthesized complementary to the first one. What way of replication is it?


A  patient  underwent  an  operation on  account  of gall bladder excision  that resulted in obstruction of Ca absorption through the  bowels  wall.  What  vitamin will stimulate  this process?

23. A newborn child has convulsions  that have  been  observed  after  prescription of vitamin  B6 . This most  probable cause  of this effect is that vitamin B6  is a component of the following enzyme:

A 46 year  old woman  suffering  from chololithiasis developed jaundice.  Her urine  became  dark-yellow  and  feces became  colourless. Blood serum will have the highest concentration of the following substance:


A   48   year   old   patient   complained   about   intense   pain,   slight   swelling  and  reddening of  skin  over  the  joints,  temperature rise  up  to  38oC . Blood analysis revealed  high concentration of urates.  This condition might be caused by disturbed metabolism of:


Examination  of   a   patient  suffering  from  frequent  hemorrhages  in  the inner organs and mucous membranes revealed proline and lysine being included in collagen fibers. Impairment of their hydroxylation is caused by lack of the following vitamin:

27. Untrained people  often  have  muscle pain after sprints as a result of lactate accumulation. This  might  be  caused  by intensification of the following biochemical process:
28. Examination of a patient revealed typical presentations of collagenosis.  This pathology is characterized by increase  of the following urine index:

Labelled amino acids alanine  and tryptophane  were  injected   to  a  mouse in order  to  study  localization  of protein synthesis  in  its  cells.  The  labelled   amino acids will be accumulated near the following organellas:


A full-term newborn  child has yellowish skin and mucous  membranes. This might be probably caused by temporary deficiency of the following enzyme:


A patient has low rate  of magnesium ions that  are  necessary  for affixion of ribosomes   to  the  endoplasmic  reticulum. It  is  known   that   it  causes  disturbance of protein biosynthesis.  At  what  stage  is protein biosynthesis  impaired?


Blood of a 12 year old boy presents low concentration of uric acid and accumulation  of  xanthine  and  hypoxanthine.  This child has  genetic  defect  of the  following enzyme:

33. Examination of a patient suffering from cancer  of  urinary  bladder revealed  high rate  of serotonin and  hydroxyanthranilic acid. It is caused by excess of the following amino acid in the organism:

Study of conversion  of a food colouring agent  revealed  that  neutralization of this  xenobiotic   takes  place  only  in  one phase  - microsomal   oxidation.   Name  a component of this phase:


A child has mental  and physical retardation, grave damage  of internal connective tissue.  Urine  analysis  reveals keratan sulfates.  What  metabolic process is disturbed?


A newborn child was found  to have reduced intensity of sucking, frequent vomiting, hypotonia. Urine and blood exhibit increased  concentration of citrulline. What metabolic process is disturbed?

37. On  an  electron   micrograph  a  scientist  has  identified   a  structure  formed by  eight  histone  proteins and  a  part  of DNA molecule which makes about 1,75 revolutions around the molecules.  Which structure has been identified?

A    newborn   develops    dyspepsia after   the   milk  feeding.   When   the   milk is substituted by the  glucose  solution the  dyspepsia  symptoms  disappear. The newborn  has the subnormal activity of the following enzyme:

39. Some  students  developed myodynia after  continuous physical  activity  during physical  education. The  reason  for  such condition was accumulation of lactic acid in the  skeletal  muscles.  It was generated in the students’ bodies  after  activation of the following process:

During  starvation muscle proteins break up into free amino acids. These compounds will be the most probably involved into the following process:

41. A 1-year-old baby has been hospitalised  for  body  and  limbs  lesions.  Examination  revealed  carnitine deficiency in the child’s muscles. A biochemical  reason  for this pathology is the disorder  of:
42. It  was  found  out  that  some compounds, for instance  fungi toxins and some  antibiotics   can  inhibit   activity  of RNA-polymerase.  What  process  will be disturbed in a cell in case of inhibition  of this enzyme?
43. A patient complained about  dizziness, memory  impairment, periodical convulsions. It was revealed that these changes were caused by a product of decarboxylation of  glutamic  acid.  Name this product:


During  hypersensitivity test a patient got subcutaneous injection  of an antigen which  caused  reddening of skin,  edema, pain  as a result  of histamine action.  This biogenic amine  is generated as a result of transformation of the  following  histidine amino acid:


Vitamin B1  deficiency causes disturbance   of   oxidative    decarboxylation  of  α-ketoglutaric acid.  This  leads  to the  impaired synthesis  of  the  following coenzyme:


Jaundice treatment involves administration of barbiturates inducing the synthesis  of UDP-glucuronyl transferase. A medicinal  effect is caused by the production of:


It was revealed that  T-lymphocytes were  affected   by  HIV.   Virus  enzyme - reverse transcriptase   (RNA-dependent DNA-polymerase) - catalyzes the synthesis of:

48. A  patient has  an  increased pyruvate concentration  in  blood,   most   of   it  is excreted with the urine. What kind of avitaminosis  has this patient?

Urine  analysis  of  a  12-year-old  boy reveals high concentration of all aliphatic amino  acids  with  the  highest  excretion of cystine and cysteine. US of kidneys revealed  kidney concrements. What is the most likely pathology?

50. The greater amount of nitrogen is excreted from  the  organism  in  form  of urea. Inhibition of urea synthesis and accumulation of  ammonia in  blood  and tissues are induced by the decreased activity of the following liver enzyme:


A  doctor  recommends a  patient with  duodenal ulcer  to  drink  cabbage  and potato  juice   after   the   therapy  course. Which substances  contained in these vegetables  help  to  heal  and  prevent the ulcers?

52. A   46-year-old   patient  consulted   a doctor complaining about joint pain that becomes   stronger  the   day   before   the weather   changes.    Blood    examination revealed an increased concentration of uric acid. The most probable cause of the disease is the intensified disintegration of the following substance:


A  patient has  pellagra.  Interrogation revealed  that he had lived mostly on maize for a long time  and  eaten  little  meat. This disease had been caused by the deficit of the following substance  in the maize:


Researchers   isolated    5   isoenzymic forms  of lactate  dehydrogenase from  the human blood serum and studied their properties. What  property indicates  that the  isoenzymic  forms  were  isolated  from the same enzyme?


A  10-year-old   girl  has  a  history   of repeated acute respiratory viral infection. After  recovering  she presents with multiple petechial hemorrhages on the sites of friction  from  clothing  rubbing   the  skin. What kind of hypovitaminosis has this girl?


A  patient  presents with  dysfunction of cerebral cortex accompanied by epileptic  seizures.  He  has  been  administered  a biogenic amine  synthesized from glutamate and responsible for central inhibition.  What substance  is it?


Osteolaterism is characterized by a decrease in  collagen  strength   caused  by much  less  intensive  formation  of  cross-links in collagen fibrils. This phenomenon is caused by the low activity of the following enzyme:


A  patient has  been  diagnosed  with alkaptonuria. Choose  an  enzyme  whose deficiency can be the reason for this pathology:

59. Emotional stress  causes  activation of hormone-sensitive triglyceride  lipase in the adipocytes. What secondary mediator takes part in this process?


A 36 year old female patient has a history of collagen disease. Urine analysis is likely to reveal an increased concentration of the following metabolite:


Vitamin  A together with specific cytoreceptors penetrates through the nuclear   membranes, induces  transcription  processes  that  stimulate growth  and differentiation of cells. This biological function  is realized  by the following form of vitamin A:


After severe viral hepatitis a 4 year old boy presents with vomiting,  occasional loss of consciousness, convulsions. Blood test revealed hyperammoniemia. Such condition is caused by a disorder of the following biochemical hepatic process:


Before the cells can utilize the glucose, it is first transported from the extracellular space  through the  plasmatic   membrane inside them. This process is stimulated by the following hormone:


A   2 year   old   child   with   mental and physical retardation has been delivered to a hospital. He presents with frequent vomiting   after   having   meals. There is phenylpyruvic acid in urine. Which metabolism abnormality is the  reason for this pathology?


Examination  of  a  child  who  hasn’t got fresh  fruit  and  vegetables  during  winter revealed numerous subcutaneous hemorrhages, gingivitis, carious cavities in teeth.  What vitamin combination should be prescribed in this case?


An experimental animal that was kept on  protein-free  diet  developed  fatty  liver  infiltration,   in  particular as  a  result of deficiency  of methylating agents.  This is caused by disturbed generation of the following metabolite:


Characteristic   sign   of   glycogenosis is  muscle   pain   during   physical   work. Blood examination reveals usually hypoglycemia. This  pathology  is caused by congenital deficiency  of the  following enzyme:


At  the  stage  of  translation  in  the rough  endoplasmic reticulum,  the ribosome  moves along the mRNA. Amino acids are joined together by peptide bonds in a specific sequence, and thus polypeptide synthesis takes place. The sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide corresponds to the sequence  of:

69. Children with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome have a severe form of hyperuricemia  accompanied by the  formation of tophi,  urate  calculi  in the  urinary  tracts, as well as serious neuro-psychiatric disorders.  The  cause  of this  disease  is the reduced activity of the following enzyme:


The genetic defect of pyruvate carboxylase deficiency is the cause of delayed physical and mental development and  early  death  in children.  This  defect is characterized by lacticemia,  lactaciduria,  disorder of a number  of metabolic pathways.  In particular, the following process is inhibited:


An experiment proved  that UV- irradiated skin cells of patients with xeroderma pigmentosum restore the native structure of DNA  slower than the cells of  healthy   people   due  to  the  defect  in repair  enzyme.  What  enzyme  takes  part in this process?

72. One  of the factors that  cause obesity is the  inhibition  of  fatty  acids  oxidation due to:

For   the   study   of  serum   proteins various physical and physicochemical methods  can be used. In particular, serum albumins  and  globulins  can be separated by this method:

74. Enzymatic  jaundices  are accompanied  by  abnormal activity  of  UDP-glucuronyl   transferase. What  compound is accumulated in blood  serum  in case of these pathologies?

It   is  known   that   the   monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzyme plays an important part in the metabolism of catecholamine neurotransmitters. In what way does the enzyme inactivate  these neurotransmitters (norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine)?

76. A  20-year-old  male  patient complains  of  general   weakness,   rapid   fatigability, irritability, decreased performance, bleeding   gums,  petechiae  on  the   skin. What  vitamin  deficiency  may be a cause of these changes?

By the decarboxylation of glutamate in the CNS an inhibitory  mediator is formed. Name it:


An  unconscious  patient was taken  by ambulance  to  the  hospital.   On  objective  examination  the   patient  was  found to  have  no  reflexes,  periodical   convulsions, irregular breathing. After  laboratory examination the patient was diagnosed with   hepatic    coma.   Disorders  of   the central nervous system develop due to the accumulation of the following metabolite:

79. A   number  of  diseases   can  be  diagnosed  by  evaluating activity  of  blood transaminases. What vitamin is one of cofactors  of these enzymes?
80. Glycogen  polysaccharide is synthesized from the  active form  of glucose. The immediate donor of glucose residues during the glycogenesis is:

Hemoglobin   catabolism    results    in release   of  iron  which  is  transported  to the  bone   marrow   by  a  certain   transfer protein and used again for the synthesis of hemoglobin. Specify this transfer protein:


Pterin  derivatives  (aminopterin and methotrexate) are the inhibitors  of dihydrofolate reductase, so that they inhibit the  regeneration of  tetrahydrofolic  acid from  dihydrofolate. These  drugs  inhibit the intermolecular transfer of monocarbon groups,  thus  suppressing  the  synthesis  of the following polymer:


A 28-year-old patient undergoing treatment in the pulmonological department has been diagnosed with pulmonary emphysema caused by splitting of alveolar septum by tissular tripsin. The disease is caused by the congenital deficiency of the following protein:


A patient diagnosed  with focal tuberculosis of the upper  lobe of the right lung had  been  taking  isoniazid  as a part of combination therapy. After  some time, the patient reported of muscle weakness, decreased  skin  sensitivity,   blurred  vision,  impaired  motor   coordination.  Which vitamin  preparation should  be used to address  these phenomena?

85. Hepatitis B is diagnosed through laboratory tests that determine the presence of HBA-DNA in blood serum of the patient. What reference method is applied for this purpose?


Nucleolar organizers of the 13-15, 21, 22 human chromosomes contain about 200 cluster genes that synthesize RNA. These regions of chromosomes bear the information on the following type of RNA:

87. Steatosis is caused by the accumulation of triacylglycerols in hepatocytes. One of the mechanisms of this disease development is a decrease in the utilization of VLDL neutral fat. What lipotropics prevent the development of steatosis?
88. Decarboxylation of glutamate induces production of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA ) neurotransmitter. After breakdown, GABA is converted into a metabolite of the citric acid cycle, that is:


Disruption of nerve fiber myelinogenesis causes neurological disorders and mental retardation. These symptoms are typical for hereditary and acquired alterations in the metabolism of:


A child has a history of hepatomegaly, hypoglycemia, seizures, especially on an empty stomach and in stressful situations. The child is diagnosed with Gierke’s disease. This disease is caused by the genetic defect of the following enzyme:


In case of alkaptonuria, homogentisic acid is excreted in urine in large amounts. The development of this disease is associated with a disorder of metabolism of the following amino acid:


Patients with erythropoietic porphyria (Gunther’s disease) have teeth that fluoresce with bright red color when subjected to ultraviolet radiation; their skin is light-sensitive, urine is red-colored. What enzyme can cause this disease, when it is deficient?

93. A 49-year-old male patient with acute pancreatitis was likely to develop pancreatic necrosis, while active pancreatic proteases were absorbed into the blood stream and tissue proteins broke up. What protective factors of the body can inhibit these processes?

According to the results of glucose tolerance test, the patient has no disorder of carbohydrate tolerance. Despite that, glucose is detected in the patients’ urine (5 mmol/l). The patient has been diagnosed with renal diabetes. What renal changes cause glucosuria in this case?


A patient with hereditary hyperammonemia due to a disorder of ornithine cycle has developed secondary orotaciduria. The increased synthesis of orotic acid is caused by an increase in the following metabolite of ornithine cycle:


A 39-year-old female patient with a history of diabetes was hospitalized in a precomatose state for diabetic ketoacidosis. This condition had been caused by an increase in the following metabolite level:

97. A patient with homogentisuria has signs of arthritis, ochronosis. In this case, the pain in the joints is associated with the deposition of:
98. Malaria is treated with structural analogs of vitamin B2 (riboflavin). These drugs disrupt the synthesis of the following enzymes in plasmodium:

A 53-year-old male patient is diagnosed with Paget’s disease. The concentration of oxyproline in daily urine is sharply increased, which primarily means intensified disintegration of:

100. Cyanide is a poison that causes instant death of the organism. What enzymes found in mitochondria are affected by cyanide?
101. It  has  been  found  out  that  one of a pesticide components is sodium arsenate that blocks lipoic acid. Which enzyme activity is impaired by this pesticide?


A 46-year-old female patient consulted a doctor about pain in the small joints of the upper and lower limbs. The joints are enlarged and shaped like thickened nodes. Serum test revealed an increase in urate concentration. This might be caused by a disorder in metabolism of:


Those organisms which in the process of evolution failed to develop protection from H2O2 can exist only in anaerobic conditions. Which of the following enzymes can break hydrogen peroxide down?


A patient has a critical impairment of protein, fat and hydrocarbon digestion. Most likely it has been caused by low secretion of the following digestive juice:

105. Prolonged fasting causes hypoglycemia which is amplified by alcohol consumption, as the following process is inhibited: