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Decreased blood supply to the organs causes hypoxia that activates fibroblasts function. Volume of what elements is increased in this case?


Microspecimen of red bone marrow contains multiple capillaries through the walls of which mature blood cells penetrate into the bloodstream. What type of capillaries are these?


A tissue sample of benign tumor was studied under the electron microscope. A lot of small (15-20 nm) spherical bodies, consisting of 2 unequal subunits were detected. These are:

4. Patient  with  injured  muscles  of the lower extremities was admitted to the traumatological department. Due to what cells is repairative regeneration of the muscle fibers and restoration of the muscle function possible?


In the specimen of one of the parts of respiratory system a tubular organ was found. It has low epithelium, well developed muscular tunic, glands and cartilage are absent. Name this organ:

6. A lung of a premature infant is presented on electronic photomicrography of biopsy material. Collapse of the alveolar wall caused by the deficiency of surfactant was revealed. Dysfunction of what cells of the alveolar wall caused it?
7. After breathing with poisonous steams there is an increased quantity of slime in respiratory passages of a chemical production worker. What of respiratory tract epithelial cells participate in mucosa moistening?
8. The reason of occurrence of some diseases of an oral cavity is connected with structural peculiarities of its mucous membrane. What morphological attributes characterize these features?
9. There is the change of teeth at the 6-8 years old children: deciduous are replaced by permanent. What embryonic tissues are the sources of formation of permanent teeth tissues?
10. Oval and round organelles with double wall are seen at the electron micrograph. The outer membrane is smooth, the inner membrane folded into cristae contain enzyme ATPase synthetase. These are:

In course of indirect histogenesis of tubular bone tissue a plate is formed between epiphyseal and diaphyseal ossification centres that provides further lengthwise growth of bones. What structure is it?


An electron micrograph of a kidney fragment presents an afferent arteriole. Under its endothelium some big cells can be seen that contain secretory granules. What type of cells is it?


A patient complains of dryness of head skin, itching, fragility and loss of hair. After examination he was diagnosed with seborrhea. Disturbed activity of which cells caused this condition?


In  course   of  an  experiment  a  big number  of stem cells of red bone  marrow was in some way destructed. Regeneration of which cell populations in the  loose connective tissue will be inhibited?


A pathological process in bronchi resulted in epithelium desquamation. What  cells will regenerate bronchial  epithelium?


A histological  specimen  of spleen shows  a vessel  with  a wall consisting  of endothelium and subendothelial layer, median  membrane is absent,  exterior membrane inosculates with the  layers  of spleen connective  tissue. What vessel is it?


An  electronic microphotograph shows a  macrophagic cell  with  erythrocytes at different stages of differentiation located along its processes.  This is the cell of the following organ:


A  histological   specimen   presents a receptor zone  of a sensoepithelial sense organ.  Cells of this zone are placed  upon the basal membrane and include the following types: external and internal receptor cells, external  and internal phalangeal cell, stem cells, external  limiting cells and external supporting cell. The described   receptor zone  belongs  to  the following sense organ:

19. A patient was admitted to the  hospital   with   an   asphyxia   attack   provoked by a spasm of smooth muscles of the respiratory tracts.  This  attack   was  mainly caused  by alterations in the following parts of the airways:

In   the   pubertal  period    cells   of the  male  sexual  glands  start   producing the   male   sexual   hormone  testosterone that  is responsible for  formation of  the secondary  sexual  characters. What  cells of  the  male  sexual  glands  produce this hormone?


A  microspecimen of the  submandibular  salivary  gland  shows some  basket-shaped   cells   concentrated  around  the acines and excretory ducts. These cells surround  bases  of  the  serous  cells  and are  called  myoepitheliocytes. These  cells relate  to the following tissue:


Examination of an ovary specimen stained   by  hematoxylin-eosine  revealed a follicle in which follicular epithelium consisted of 1-2 layers of cubic cells. There was also  a bright  red  membrane around the ovocyte. What follicle is it?

23. A  scheme   presents  an  exocrinous gland that has unbranched excretory duct with a terminal part  in form of a saccule opening into the duct. How is this gland called according to the morphological classification of exocrinous  glands?
24. A  viral  infection  has  damaged  cells that form walls of bile capillaries. This stimulated conditions for inflow of bile into the  blood  of sinusoidal  capillaries.  What cells are damaged?

A histological  specimen  presents an artery.  One  of the  membranes of its wall has flat cells lying on the basal membrane. What type of cells is it?


Study of fingerprints (dactylography) is used by criminalists for personal identification as well as   for diagnostics of genetic abnormalities, particularly Dawn’s disease.  What  layer  of  skin  determines individuality  of fingerprints?


A  histological  specimen  of a kidney shows a part of the distal tubule going between the  afferent and  efferent arteriole. The cells building the tubule wall have dense  nuclei;  basal  membrane is absent. Such structural formation is called:


A   histological    specimen    shows   a blood  vessel. Its  inner  coat  is composed by endothelium,   subendothelium   and internal  elastic  membrane.  The   middle coat  is enriched with  smooth  myocytes. Such morphological characteristics are typical for the following vessel:

29. While examining  the oral cavity a stomatologist revealed  inflammation of papillae   on  the   border  of  the   median and posterior third of the back of tongue. What papillae are inflamed?

Pyeloureterography X-ray photo showed  a renal  pelvis with minor  calyces only  (major calyces  were  absent). What form of urinary tracts of a kidney was revealed?

31. A sensitive  neural  ganglion  consists of roundish neurocytes with one  extension that divides into axon and dendrite at a some distance  from the perikaryon. What are these cells called?
32. A histologic specimen shows an organ\'s parenchyma which is presented by lymphoid  tissue  making  some  lymph nodes. The nodes are located diffusively and contain a central artery. What anatomic formation might have such morphological structure?

33. Ultramicroscopical examination of  \\\"dark\\\" hepatocyte  population in  the  cell cytoplasm  detected a developed granular endoplasmic reticulum. What function has this organella in these cells?
34. During  postembryonal haemopoiesis in the  red  bone  marrow  the  cells of one of  the  cellular  differons   demonstrate a gradual  decrease in cytoplasmic  basophilia  as  well  as  an  increase   in  oxyphilia, the nucleus is being forced out. Such morphological changes are typical for the following haemopoiesis type:

A microspecimen of heart shows rectangular cells from 50  to  120mcm large with central position of nucleus, developed myofibrils. The cells are connected by intercalated discs.  These cells are responsible for the following function:


A    histological    specimen    of   kidney shows a structure consisting of a glomerulus  of fenestrated capillaries  and a  bilayer  epithelial capsule.  Specify  this structure:

37. In  an  embryo  the  process  of dorsal mesoderm segmentation and somite formation  is  disturbed.  What   part   of skin will probably  have developmental abnormalities?

An  electron microphotography of a fragment of  proper gastric  gland  shows a big irregular round-shaped cell. There are  a lot of intracellular tubules  and  mitochondria in the  cytoplasm.  Specify this cell:


Electronic microphotography of pulmonary alveole’s wall  presents a  big cell. Its cytoplasm  has a lot of mitochondria, developed Golgi apparatus, osmiophil  lamellated corpuscles.  What  is the main function  of this cell?


In course of a conditional experiment the   development  of  mesenchyma  cells was  completely   inhibited.   Development of the following muscular tissue will be disturbed:


One  of  sections  of  central  nervous system has layerwise arrangement of neurocytes. Among  them  there  are  cells of the  following forms: stellate,  fusiform, horizontal, pyramidal. What section of central  nervous  system is this structure typical for?


Study  of  the  biopsy  material of  an embryo revealed  a zone of developmental abnormality in  a  somite.  The  zone  was located    close   to   the    endoderm   and the   notochord.  What   formations  may have  abnormal  development in  case  of pregnancy  continuation?


A  specimen  of pia  mater  includes  a vessel whose  wall doesn’t  have  the  tunica media,  the  tunica  externa is adherent to  the  surrounding tissues,  the  intima  is composed  of a basement membrane and endothelium. What vessel is it?

44. A histological  specimen  of the eyeball shows a biconvex  structure connected to the ciliary body by the fibers of the Zinn’s zonule and covered with a transparent capsule. Name this structure:
45. A specimen shows an organ covered with the connective tissue capsule with trabeculae  radiating   inward   the   organ. There   is  also   cortex   containing    some lymph nodules, and medullary cords made of  lymphoid  cells.  What  organ  is under study?


A 13-year-old  teenager underwent X-ray examination of the  hip joint.  Examination  revealed  a 3 mm wide radiolucent zone  between the  head  and  the  shaft  of femur.  This situation should  be evaluated as:


Alveolar   space    of    the    acinus was invaded by some bacteria which interacted with  the  surfactant.  This  led to  the   activation   of  the   cells  that   are localized  in the alveolar  walls and on the surface. What cells are these?


Negative  environmental factors have caused   the   dysfunction   of  myosatellite cells. What  function  of the  whole muscle fibre is likely to be changed  in this case?


A   specimen    of   a   parenchymal organ shows poorly  delineated hexagonal lobules  surrounding a  central  vein,  and the  interlobular connective tissue contains embedded triads (an artery, a vein and an excretory duct). What organ is it?


As  a  result  of  a  mechanical   injury an  over  10  cm  long  portion  of  a  peripheral nerve was damaged.  This led to the impairment of the upper limb activity. The patient was  offered  nerve  transplantation. What glial cells will participate in regeneration and provide  the trophism  of the injured limb?


Human skin has a high breaking strength. It is known  that  the  skin consists of  epithelial tissue  and  two  kinds  of connective tissue. Which of the following tissues provides the skin strength?


A 22-year-old female student consulted a physician about fever up to 38oC, weakness, sore throat. Objectively: there is white coating of the tongue. What histological structures of the tongue are involved in the formation of this coating?


The receptors under study provide transfer of information to the cortex without thalamic involvement. Specify these receptors:

54. A microslide contains the preparation of a gland composed of several secretory saccule-shaped parts that open in the common excretory duct. What gland is it?

In the course of an experiment adenohypophysis of an animal has been removed. The resulting atrophy of thyroid gland and adrenal cortex has been caused by deficiency of the following hormone:


An electron micrograph shows a cell-to-cell adhesion consisting, in each cell, of an attachment plaque. The intercellular space is filled with electron-dense substance including transmembrane fibrillar structures. Specify this adhesion:

57. During the histological study of cortical shaft, basophilic cells with developed synthesis organelles can be seen on the bone surface under the layer of fibers. These cells take part in bone tissue regeneration. What shaft layer are they located in?

There are cortical and medullary substances separated by connective tissue layer in the endocrine gland specimen. Parenchyma cells make up three zones in cortical substance, with rounded masses in the superficial zone, parallel chords in the middle one, reticular structure of cell chords in the deep one. What gland is it?


Histological specimen of a 10-day human embryo represents 2 contacting sacs (amniotic and yolk sacs). Specify the structure that separates the amniotic cavity from the yolk sac:


An electron micrograph shows a cell of neural origin. The terminal portion of the cell dendrite has cylindrical shape and consists of 1000 closed membrane disks. What cell is represented by the micrograph?

61. A histologic specimen represents an organ with walls comprised of mucous, submucous, fibrous-cartilaginous and adventitial membranes. Epithelium is multirowed and ciliated, muscular layer of mucous membrane is absent, submucous membrane contains serous-mucous glands, hyaline cartilage forms open circles. What organ has the described morphological features?