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The infectious diseases department of a hospital admitted a patient with nausea, liquid stool with mucus and blood streaks, fever, weakness. Dysentery was suspected. What method of laboratory diagnostics should be applied to confirm the diagnosis?

2. A 6-year-old child with suspected active tuberculous process underwent the diagnostic Mantoux test. What immunobiological preparation was injected?

Stool culture test revealed in a 6-month-old bottle-fed baby the strain of intestinal rod-shaped bacteria of antigen structure 0-111. What diagnosis can be made?

4. Bacteriological examination of the urine of the patient with pyelonephritis revealed microorganisms that produced yellow-green pigment and a characteristic odor in meat-peptone agar. What are they called?

5. A smear from the tonsillar coating of a patient with suspected diphtheria was found to contain blue bacilli with a thickening at the poles. What method of smear staining was used?
6. A patient has been hospitalised with provisional diagnosis of virus B hepatitis. Serological reaction based on complementation of antigen with antibody chemically bound to peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase has been used for disease diagnostics. What is the name of the applied serological reaction?

A patient has been hospitalised with provisional diagnosis of botulism. What serological reaction should be used to reveal botulinum toxin?


In a village, a case of anthrax had been registered. Medical services began epidemiologically indicated specific prophylaxis of population against anthrax. What preparation was used for this purpose?


A 55-year-old patient with a characteristic rash, fever, dizziness has been admitted to a hospital. He has been provisionally diagnosed with typhus. No similar cases have been reported. In his youth (15 years old) the patient suffered typhus in a boarding school. What disease is it?


In one of Polessye regions there was an outbreak of helminthiasis manifested by cramps and facial edmata. The developed preventive measures in particular included ban for eating infested pork even after heat processing. What helminthiasis was the case?


A patient who has recently arrived from an endemic area presents with elevated body temperature, headache, chills, malaise, that is with the symptoms which are typical for a common cold. What laboratory tests are necessary to prove or to disprove the diagnosis of malaria?


An outbreak of an intestinal infection occurred in a kindergarten on the eve of New Year holidays. Bacteriological examination of patients’ faeces didn’t reveal any pathogenic bacteria. Electron microscopy revealed roundish structures with clear outer edges and a thick core resembling a wheel. Specify the most likely causative agent of this infection:


A smear of streptobacillus preparation stained by Ozheshko method has been studied microscopically with oil immersion. What structural feature of the bacteria has been studied?


At a bacteriological laboratory animal skins are analyzed by means of Ascoli precipitation test. What is detected if the reaction is positive?


A  12-year-old  boy has  been  hospitalized  for  suspected   food  poisoning.   The fecal   samples   were   inoculated  on   the Endo  agar,  which  resulted in  growth  of a   large   number    of   colorless   colonies. What  microorganism is most  likely to be EXCLUDED from the list of possible causative agents of the disease?


Bacteriological  examination  of purulent discharges from the urethra revealed  some  gram-negative bean- shaped  bacteria located  in the leukocytes. They  can  be  identified  as  the  causative agent of the following disease:


A hospitalized patient bitten by a rabid animal  has  an  avulsive  wound  oshin. What kind of vaccine must be given to prevent rabies?


A  smear  of  sputu from  the  patient  with suspected  lobar  pneumonia was stained   with  the   use  of  the   following stains   an reagents:   solutio of  gentian violet, Lugols solution,  96o alcohol, water magenta. What staining method was applied  in this case?


A patient has severe catarrhal symptoms.  Material growth on Bordet-Gengo agar    showed    mercury-drop-like  colonies.  Examination of  the  blood smears  revealed  some  small ovoid  gram-positive bacilli sized 1-3 microns. What microorganisms were isolated?


The  laboratory  for  especially dangerous infectionconducts  microscopic examination of pathological material from  a  patient  with  suspected plague. The sample was stained  by Burri-Gins technique. What property of the causative  agent  can be  identified  by this technique?

21.  patient  has   been   admitted  to the infectious  diseases department for malaise,  fever  up  to  38oC ,  jaundice A few  months  ago,  the  patient underwent blood  transfusion. Thdoctor  suspected viral hepatitis B. What  are  the  principal methods of laboratory diagnosis of hepatitis B?

A miner consulted  a physician about the  appearance of body rash followed  by a loss of appetite, bloating, duodenal pain, frequent bowel movements, dizziness. Ovoscopic  probes  of feces anduodenal contents revealed  some eggs covered with a  transparent  membrane through which 4-8 germinal  cells  could  be  seen.  What disease  is likely  to  have  occurred in thpatient?


In   th surgical   ward th dressing  material  was  undergoing  sterilization  in  an  autoclave Through   an  oversighof a nurse  the  mode  of sterilization was changed  and  the  temperature in the autoclave  reached only 100oC instead  of the due 120oC . What microorganisms can stay viable under  these conditions?


Typical  manifestations of  food  poisoning    caused    by   C.   botulinum   are double   vision,  abnormal  functioning  of the swallowing and breathing. These symptoms develop  as a result of:


 patien consulted     physician about chest pain, cough, fever. Roentgenography of lungs revealed  eosinophilic infiltrates which were found to contain  the  larvae.  What  kinof helminthiasi are   thes presentations  typical for?


A patient consulted  a dentist  about limited  mouth  opening  (trismus).  He has a history of a stab wound of the lower extremity. What infection may cause these symptoms?


A    female    patien consulted     a physician about   digestive disorder, extended abdominal pain. Examination revealed drastic decrease in hemoglobin concentration. It is known from the anamnesis that while living in the Far East the patient used to eat freshly-salted caviar. Some relatives  living with her had the similar condition. What  is the most likely diagnosis?

28. Analysis of sputum taken from a patient with  suspected   pneumonia revealed rather elongated gram-positive diplococci with  somewhat   pointed  opposite   ends. What   microorganisms were  revealed   in the sputum?

The contents of vesicles that appeared on the  mucous  membrane  of  a  patient with variola was sent to a virological laboratory.  Which of the  listed  changes were revealed during the smear microscopy?


Serological diagnostics of infectious diseases  is based  upon  specific interaction  with  antigens. Specify  the  serological reaction that underlies adhesion of microorganisms  when  they  are  affected by  specific antibodies in presence of  an electrolyte:


In order to determine toxigenicity  of diphtheria bacilli  a  strip  of  filter  paper impregnated with antitoxic  diphtherial serum was put on the dense nutrient medium.  Ther were  also  inoculated  a  microbial  culture  under  examination and  a strain  that  is known  to  be  toxigenic.  If the   microbial   cultur under   examination produces exotoxin, this  will result  in formation of:


A patient underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Analysis of the  biopsy  material enabled doctors to diagnose him with helicobacteriosis. What property of the bacteria found  in this  patient had  to  be obligatory taken into account  during their cultivation?


There  was a record  of some anthrax cases  among   animal in  a  countryside. The  spread  of disease  can  be  prevented by meanof immunization. What  kind of vaccine should be used?


A bacteriological laboratory received sputusample of a patient suffering from tuberculosis. Bacterioscopic examination of  smears  and  detection of  tuberculosis bacillus can be realized by one of enrichment  methods  that  involves processing of  sputum  only  with  solution  ocaustic soda. What is this method called?

35. Vomiting matters of a patient suspected of having cholera were delivered to the bacteriological laboratory. The  material was  used  for  preparing a \"hanging  drop\" specimen. What type of microscopy will be applied for identification of the causative agent by its mobility?


During    examinatio o  patient  a  dentist   revealed   a  lot  of  \"white spotzones  of enamel  demineralization. What microorganisms take part in the development of this process?


A  4  year  old  child  presents  with general weakness, sore throat and deglutitive  problem.  After   his  examination a doctor  suspected  diphtheria and sent  the material to the bacteriological laboratory. In order  to determine the diphtheria causative   agent   the  material should   be inoculated into  the  following  differential diagnostic medium:


Sanitary  bacteriological research on water by the membrane filter method revealed  two red colonies on a membrane filter (Endo agar)  through which 500 ml of analyzed  water  were passed.  Calculate the coli index and coli titer of the analyzed water:


A 55-year-old  male patient was hospitalised  to  surgical  clinic for  suspected septicemia.    What    material   should    be taken  for analysis?


A  man  died  from  an  acute  infectious disease accompanied by fever, jaundice,    haemorrhagic   rash    on    the    skin and  mucous   membranes  as  well  as  by acute renal insufficiency. Histological examination of  renal  tissue  (stained by Romanovsky-Giemsa method) revealed some   convoluted  bacteria  looking   like C and S letters.  What bacteria were revealed?


A culturof monkey  cells (Vero) and a group of moussucklings were infected with an inoculum  taken  from a child with provisional  diagnosis \"enterovirus infection\".  There  was  no  cytopathic effect  on the cell culture  but moussucklings died. What enteric viruses might have caused disease of this child?


Microscopic  examination of a  gram- stained scrape from a patients tongue revealed  oval, round,  elongated chains of dark-violet gemmating cells. What disease can be caused by this causative agent?

43. A patient working at a pig farm complains    about    paroxysmal    abdominal pain,  liquid  feces with admixtures of mucus and blood, headache, weakness, fever. Examination of large intestine revealed  ulcers  from 1 mm up to several cm large, feces contained oval unicellular organisms  with cilia. What disease should be suspected?

A    male    patient   has    been    diagnosed  with  gastric  ulcer.  Bacteriological examination of biopsy  material from the   affected   part   of  stomach   revealed small colonies of gram-negative, oxide reductase-positive flexibacteria  that  grew on  the  chocolate  agar  on  the  fifth  day. Which  of  the  following  microorganisms is the most likely causative agent?

45. A patient has food poisoning. Laboratory  analysis   revealed   a  culture of anaerobic gram-positive spore-forming bacteria. What  is the  moslikely kinof the isolated  causative agent?

A  pregnant woman  was  registered in an antenatal clinic and underwent complex examination for a number of infections.  Blood  serum  contained IgM to  the  rubella  virusWhat  is this  result indicative of?


After  inoculation of the material obtained from  the  pharynx  of an angina patient onto the blood-tellurite agar, grey colonies  could  be  observed.   They  were 4-5 mm in diameter, radially  striated (in form  of  rosettes). Microscopical   examination  revealed  gram-positive bacilli  with clavate  swollen ends  arranged in form of wide-spread fingers. Identify  these  microorganisms:


Examination of a patient with pustular skin lesions  allowed  to  isolate  a causative agent that forms in the blood agar roundish yellow middle-sized  colonies surrounded by haemolysis  zone.  Smears from    the    colonies    contain    irregular- shaped   clusters   of  gram-positive  cocci. The   culture   is  oxidase-   and   catalase-positive,  ferments mannitol and synthesizes   plasmocoagulase.   What    causative agent was isolated?

49. Clinical  diagnosis  of  a  female  patient  was  gonorrhoea. What  examination method can be applied for confirmation of this diagnosis?

50. During  regular  examination of schoolchildren it was revealed  that  a 10 year old girl had asymmetric  oval eggs with a larva in the scrape from her perianal folds. What diagnosis should be made?

Researchers of a bacteriological laboratory examine  tinned  meat  for botulinic  toxin.  For  this purpose a group of mice was injected with an extract of the material under  examination and antitoxic antibotulinic serum  of AB, E  types.  A control  group  of mice  was injected  with the  same  extract  but  without  antibotulinic serumWhat  serological  reaction was applied?


During  threpeated Widals agglutination  test  it was noticed  that  the  ratio of antibody  titers  and  O-antigens S.typhi in the patients serum had increased  fro1:100 to 1:400. How  would  you interpret these results?


A  patient has  acne  on  his face.  Microspcopic  examination of scrapings from the affected  areas  revealed  living porrect vermiform   arthropoda 0,2-0,5 mm  large with four pairs of short  extremities in the front part of their bodies. What is the laboratory diagnosis?


Among   junior  children   of  an orphanage an outbreak of intestinal infection with signs of colienteritis was registered. In  order   to  identify  isolated causative agent it is necessary to:

55. A virological laboratory obtained pathological material (mucous  discharges from  nasal  meatuses) taken  from  a patient with provisional diagnosis \"influenza\". What quick test will allow to reveal specific viral antigen  in the material under examination?

A 7 year old child often  suffers from streptococci angina. Doctor suspected development of rheumatism and administered serological examination. The provisional diagnosis will be most probably confirmed  by  presence of  antibodies  to the following streptococci antigen:

57. patient has  been  suffering  from elevated temperature and attacks  of typical  cough  for  10  days.  Doctor  administered inoculation of mucus from the patients nasopharynx on the  agar. What  microorganism is presumed?

Microscopical  examination of a microbial culture revealed fusiform spore-forming  microorganisms that  get  violet-blue  Grams stainWhat  microorganisms were revealed?


Material taken   from  a  patient with provisional diagnosis \"influenza\" was referred to  laboratory. For  virological examination thhemadsorption reaction was applied.  This reaction can be applied for detection of the following viruses:

60. While  studying  a  microslide  obtained frothe  punctuate of a regional  lymph node and stained by Romanovsky-Giemsa method  a physician  revealed  some  light-pin thin   microorganisms   with   12-14 regular  spiral  coils and  pointed ends,  up to 10-13 micrometer long. This might  be the  causative  agent  of  the  following  disease:

Bacteriological  examination  of purulent discharges  from the urethra revealed  gram-negative bacteria looking like  coffee  beans They  were  localized in the leukocytes  and could decompose glucose and maltose to acid. These are the causative agents of the following disease:


Study of bacteriological sputum  specimens stained  by the Ziel-Neelsen method revealed  some bright-red acid-resistant bacilli that were found in groups or singularly. When inoculated onto  the nutrient media, the signs of their growth show up on the 10-15 day. These bacteria relate to the following family:

63. In  a  2-year-old  child  with  catarrhal presentations  and  skin  rash  a  pediatrician  suspected   scarlet   fever.   Th child was given  intracutaneously a small  dose oserum  antibody to  the  streptococcal erythrogenic toxin; on the site of injection the rash disappeared. What do the reaction results mean?

A bacteriological laboratory has received  smears  from  the  sputum   of  a  patient with a chronic pulmonary disease. Microscopical  examination of the smears stained   by  the  Ziehl-Neelsen technique revealed  red bacilli. What property of the tuberculosis bacillus has shown itself?


A woman  delivered  a dead  child with multiple  developmental defectsWhat protozoan disease  might have caused  the intrauterine death?


Retrospective diagnostics of bacterial dysentery involved serological  analysis of blood  serum  intended fodetermination of Shigella antibody  titre. Which of the following reactions shoulbe applied  for this purpose?


During  the regular  sanitary-epidemiological inspection  of a pharmacy, the bacteriological analysis of air was performed. The air was found to have bacilli, yeast fungi, hemolytic streptococci, micrococci. Which of the detected microorganisms indicate  the direct epidemic danger?


A   65-year-old   man   has   purulent abscess  on  his  neck.  Analyses   revealed a culture  of gram-positive cocci with plasmocoagulase activity. This culture relates most likely to:


Blood  of  a  patient with  presumable sepsis was inoculated into sugar broth. There  appeared bottom  sediment. Repeated inoculation into  blood  agar caused growth of small transparent round colonies  surrounded bhemolysis  zone. Examination of  a  smear  from  the  sediment revealed  gram-positive cocci in form of long chains. What  microorganisms are present in blood of this patient?


In order  to estimate toxigenity  of diphtheria  agents   obtained  from  patients the cultures  were inoculated on Petri dish with nutrient agar on either  side of a filter paper  strip  that  was put  into  the  centre and  moistened with  antidiphtheric anti-toxic serum. After incubation of inoculations in agar the strip-like areas of medium turbidity  were found between separate cultures  and the strip of filter paper.  What immunological reaction was conducted?


A patient with clinical signs of encephalitis was delivered to thinfectious diseases hospital. Anamnesis registers a tick bite. Hemagglutination-inhibition reaction helped to reveal antibodies to the causative  agent of tick-borne encephalitis in the dilution 1:20 which is not diagnostic. What actions should the doctor  take after he had got such result?


A 40 year old man noticed  a reddening  and  an  edem of  skin  in  the   area ohis  neck  that  later  developed into  a small abscess. Thincised focus is dense, yellowish-green.  The  pus  contain white granules. Histological examination revealed drusen of a fungus, plasmatic and xanthome cells, macrophages. What  type of mycosis is the most probable?

73. A patient recovered from Sonne dysentery and was once more infected with the same causative  agent. What is such infection form called?

Skin  of a man  who  died  from  cardiac insufficiency  has  an  eruption in form o spot an specks There    ar also bedsores  in the  area  of sacrum  anspinous vertebral processes.  Microscopical examination of CNS, skin, adrenal glands revealed  in the vessels of microcirculatory bed and in small arteries destructive-proliferative endothrombovasculitis with Popovs granulomas; interstitial myocarditis. What  diagnosicorresponds with the described picture?


A man was admitted to the hospital on the 5th day of disease that manifested itself by jaundice, muscle aching, chill, nose bleedings. In course of laboratory diagnostics a bacteriologist performed dark-field microscopy of the patient’s blood drop. Name a causative agent of this disease:


Examination of a child revealed some whitish spots looking like coagulated milk on the mucous membrane of his cheeks and tongue. Analysis of smears revealed gram-positive oval yeast-like cells. What causative agents are they?


Bacteriological examination of a patient with food poisoning required inoculation of a pure culture of bacteria with the following properties: gram-negative movable bacillus that grows in the Endo’s medium in form of colourless colonies. A representative of which species caused this disease?

78. Examination of a young man in the AIDS centre produced a positive result of immune-enzyme assay with HIV antigens. Patient’s complaints about state of his health were absent. What can the positive result of immune-enzyme assay be evidence of?

Reaction of passive hemagglutination conducted with erythrocytic typhoid Vi-diagnosticum helped to reveal some antibodies in the dilution of the patient’s serum at a ratio of 1:80 that exceeds the diagnostic titer. Such result witnesses of:


A patient has symptoms of inflammation of urogenital tracts. Examination of a vaginal smear revealed big monocellular, pear-shaped organisms with the pointed spike at the posterior end of body, big nucleus and undulating membrane. What protozoa were found in the smear?

81. A laboratory received a material from a patient’s wound. Preliminary diagnosis is gaseous gangrene. What microbiological method should be applied to determine species of causative agent?

Slime, blood and protozoa 30-200 microns long have been revealed in a man’s feces. The body is covered with cilias and has correct oval form with a little bit narrowed anterior and wide round shaped posterior end. At the anterior end a mouth is visible. In cytoplasm there are two nuclei and two short vacuoles. What are the described features typical for?


From the nasopharynx of a 5-year-old child it was excreted a microorganism which is identical to Corynebacterium diphtheriae dose according to morphological and biochemical signs. But this microorganism does not produce exotoxin. As a result of what process can this microorganism become toxigenic?


A man who was bitten by the unknown dog applied to the surgeon. Wide ragged wounds were localized on the face. What curative-prophylactic aid should be given to prevent rabies?


A patient who came to the doctor because of his infertility was administered to make tests for toxoplasmosis and chronic gonorrhoea. Which reaction should be performed to reveal latent toxoplasmosis and chronic gonorrhoea of the patient?

86. A person was selling \"homemade pork\" sausages at the market. State sanitary inspector suspected falcification of the sausages. What serological immune reaction can identify food substance?
87. The donor who didn’t donate the blood for a long time was investigated with IFA method. Anti-HBs antibodies were revealed. What does positive result of IFA in this case mean?
88. Scraps of the mycelium of a fungus, spores, air bubbles and fat drops were discovered on microscopy of the patient’s hair excluded from the infected areas. What fungus disease is characterised by this microscopic picture?


Parents with an ill child consulted an infectionist. They had been working in one of Asian countries for a long time. The child has sallow skin, loss of appetite, laxity, enlarged liver, spleen, peripheral lymph nodes. What protozoal illness can be suspected?

90. A large-scale reaction with parapertussis and pertussis diagnosticums was made in order to make serological diagnostics of the whooping cough. At the bottom of the test-tubes with diagnosticum of Bordetella parapertussis a granular sediment formed. What antibodies did this reaction reveal?