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1. A 45 year old man consulted  a doctor about a plaque-like formation on his neck. Histological   examination  of  a  skin  bioptate  revealed   clusters   of  round   and oval tumour cells with a narrow  border of basophilic  cytoplasm  resembling of cells of basal epidermal layer. What  tumour is it?

Preventive  examination  of  a  patient  revealed  an enlarged lymph  node  of metastatic origin on the medial wall of the left axillary crease Specify the most likely localization  of the primary tumour:

3. Examination of a 55 year old woman revealed   under   the   skin  of  submandibular area a movable slowly growing pasty formation with distinct borders 1,0x0,7 cm large.  Histological  examination revealed lipocytes that form segments of different forms and sizes separated from each other by  thin  layers  of  connective tissue  with vessels. What is the most probable diagnosis?

A  39 year  old  man  who  had  been operated for the stomach ulcer died 7 days after  the  surgery.  Autopsy revealed  that peritoneal leaves were dull, plephoric, covered  with  massive  yellow-greenish films,  the  peritoneal cavity  contained for about  300 ml of thick yellow-greenish liquid.  What  pathologic process  was revealed  in the peritoneal cavity?


Autopsy of  a  17 year  old  girl  who died   from   pulmonary  failure   revealed a small area of caseous necrosis in the inferior  lobe of the right lung, and occurrences of caseous necrosis in the bronchopulmonary, bronchial  and bifurcational lymph nodes. What is the most probable postmortem diagnosis?

6. A 10 year old child had the mantoux tuberculin  test   administered.  48  hours later  a  papule  up  to  8 mm  in  diameter appeared  on  the   site  of  the   injection. What type of hypersensitivity reaction developed after the tuberculin injection?

A 38 year old man died all of a sudden. Autopsy  revealed   myocardial   infarction in  the  posterior wall  of  the  left  ventricle. What  are  the  most  likely alterations in  myocardiocyte structure  that   can  be revealed   microscopically   in  the  infarction focus?


Histologic  analysis  of uterus  mucous membrane  revealed   twisting  glands, serrated and spinned,  they were extended by stroma  growth with proliferation of its cells. Formulate a diagnosis:


Bacterioscopy of  nasopharyngeal mucus  taken   from  a  2,5  year  old  child with nasopharyngitis revealed  gram- positive   diplococci   looking   like   coffee grains. What  organs  of the child are most likely to be affected  if these  microorganisms penetrate the blood?


Autopsy of a man who died from ethylene glycol  poisoning   revealed   that his   kidneys   are   a   little   bit   enlarged, edematic; their capsule can be easily removed.  Cortical  substance  is broad  and light-grey.  Medullary substance   is  dark- red. What pathology had this man?


Autopsy   of    a    man    who    had tuberculosis revealed  a 3x2 cm large cavity in the  superior lobe  of the  right  lung. The cavity was interconnected with a bronchus,   its  wall  was  dense  and  consisted  of  three   layers:  the  internal  layer was pyogenic, the middle layer was made by tuberculous granulation tissue and the external one  was made  by connective tissue. What is the most likely diagnosis?


During    examination  of   a   6-year-old    child    a    doctor     revealed     greyish    films    on    the    pharyngeal    tonsils. Their removal  provoked moderate haemorrhage. Bacterioscopy revealed gram-positive clublike bacteria. What symptoms will develop in this child within the next few days if no specific treatment is provided?


Autopsy of  a  woman  with  cerebral atherosclerosis  revealed   in  the  left cerebral hemisphere a certain  focus that is  presented by  flabby,  anhistic,  greyish and yellowish tissue with indistinct  edges. What pathological process is the case?


A 38-year-old man died in the attempt of lifting weight. He had collaptoid state. Autopsy revealled  an  extensive  aneurism rupture  of  thoracic   aorta.   He   suffered from   visceral  syphilis  during   his  lifetime. What pathological process caused weakness  of aortic  wall, its dilatation and rupture?


Microscopical  examination of an enlarged cervical lymph node revealed blurring  of its structure, absence  of lymphoid  follicles; all the  microscopic  fields showed cells with roundish nuclei and thin limbus of basophil cytoplasm. It is known from the clinical data that other groups  of lymph  nodes  are  also enlarged as well as spleen  and  liver. What  disease might be suspected?


A worker  of a cattle  farm fell acutely ill and then died from the progressing intoxication. Autopsy revealed  enlarged, hyposthenic spleen  of dark-cherry colour when  dissected;  excessive  pulp  scraping. At the base and fornix of brain pia maters are edematous, soaked  with blood,  dark-red  (\"scarlet hat\").   Microscopic   examination revealed serous haemorrhagic inflammation  of  brain  tissues  and  tunics along  with destruction of small vessel walls. What is the most likely diagnosis?


A man with a wound  of his limb that had been  suppurating for a long time died  from  intoxication. Autopsy  revealed extreme emaciation, dehydration, brown atrophy of liver, myocardium, spleen  and cross-striated muscles as well as renal amyloidosis. What diagnosis corresponds with the described  presentations?

18. Chronic inflammation and transformation   of   the   one-layer  ciliated   epithelium  into   multiple-layers  flat  epithelium was  revealed   in  the  thickened  mucous membrane  of  the  bronchus bioptate  of the  patient with smoke  abuse.  Which  of the processes is the most likely?

Microscopic examination of the enlarged  neck   gland   of  a  14  year   old girl   revealed    destruction   of    the    tissue  structure  of  the  node,   absence   of the lymph follicles, sclerotic areas and necrosis foci, cell constitution of the node is polymorphous, lymphocytes,  eosinophils, big atypical cells with multilobular nuclei (Beresovsky-Sternberg cells) and mononuclear cells  of  the  large  size  are present. What is the most likely diagnosis?

20. Pulmonary  examination  of  a  patient  who  has  worked  as  a  stone  grinder for 9 years  revealed  small dense  roundish  nodules   consisting   of  connective  tissue. The nodules were found to have peripheral macrophages. Such pulmonary  alterations are indicative  of the following disease:
21. Autopsy of a 75-year-old  man  with a long history  of atherosclerosis revealed  a grey irregular-shaped focus of loose consistency in the right parietotemporal region of brain.  What  is the most likely cause of this process?

Autopsy  of   a   man   with   a   malignant    stomach    tumour   who   had   died   from   cancer    intoxication  revealed in the posteroinferior lung fields some dense, grayish-red  irregular foci protruding above the section surface. Microscopic examination  revealed   exudate  containing a large  amount of neutrophils in the lumen and walls of small bronchi and alveoles. Such pulmonary alterations indicate the following disease:


Autopsy   of    a    1,5-year-old    child revealed  haemorrhagic skin rash, moderate hyperaemia and edema  of nasopharyngeal mucous membrane, small haemorrhages in the mucous  membranes and  internal organs;  dramatic  dystrophic alterations in liver and myocardium; acute necrotic nephrosis; massive haemorrhages in the  adrenal glands.  What  disease  are these alterations the most typical for?


A  46-year-old   man   had   a  bulging dark macula on skin that caused no discomfort.  With  time  it began  to increase in size and became  painful. It turned dark brown and there  was a nodule  on palpation. Histological  examination of tissues revealed spindle and polymorphous cells with multiple mitoses. Their cytoplasm contained brown  pigment.  What  tumour is it?


Autopsy of a 58 year old man revealed that bicuspid valve was deformed, thickened   and   unclosed.    Microscopically: foci  of  collagen   fibrilla  are   eosinophilic, react positively to fibrin. The most probably  it is:


Histological  examination of  the  biopsy  material obtained  from  the  lower third  of  the  esophagus of  a  57-year-old male  with  the  symptoms   of  continuous reflux  revealed  the  change  of the  stratified  squamous epithelium to  the  single-layer  columnar glandular epithelium with  signs  of  mucus   production.  Specify the  pathological process  in  the  mucous membrane:


Microscopy  of   the   bronchial wall revealed atrophy  of the mucosa, metaplastic change from columnar  to squamous  epithelium, an   increase    in the number of goblet cells, diffuse infiltration    of   the   bronchial  wall with lymphoplasmacytic elements with a large number of neutrophilic granulocytes, pronounced sclerosis. Specify the morphological form of bronchitis:


Microscopy   of  the  myocardium  of a  patient who  had  died  from  heart  failure revealed foci of fibrinoid necrosis located  diffusely in the interstitial stroma, and often around the vessels. Such foci were surrounded by lymphocytes, macrophages, histiocytes.  Pericardium was found  to have signs of sero-fibrinous pericarditis. What  is the  most  likely  diagnosis?


A  65-year-old   male   suddenly   lost the  vision  in  one  eye  due  to  the  retinal  detachment. The  patient underwent enucleation.    Histological     examination of  the  removed eye  retina   and  choroid revealed   clusters   of   atypical   cells  with marked polymorphism of cells and nuclei,  with  a  moderate number   of  mitoses including the pathological ones. The cell  cytoplasm   and   intercellular  medium contained brown pigment giving a positive  DOPA  reaction. Perls’ reaction was negative.  What  is the  most  likely diagnosis?


At the post-mortem examination the stomach of a patient with renal failure was found  to have a yellow-brown  coating  on the  thickened mucosa.The  coating  was firmly adhering to its surface  and  had  significant thickness. Microscopy revealed congestion  and  necrosis  of mucosal  and submucosal  layers,  fibrin presence. What is the most likely diagnosis?

31. Histological  examination of the removed skin neoplasm  revealed  clusters and cords of atypical cells of stratified squamous epithelium, growing into the underlying tissue. What  diagnosis  can be assumed?

Autopsy  of  a  man  who  died  from chronic  cardiovascular collapse  revealed \"tiger  heart\". Sidewards  of endocardium a yellowish-white banding can be seen; myocardium is dull, dark-yellow.  What process caused this pathology?

33. Autopsy  of  a  62-year-old   woman revealed  a dense well-circumscribed node of 6 cm in diameter in the  cranial  cavity. The node  was attached to the dura  mater and histologically consisted of clusters and micro-concentric structures of endothelial cells, psammoma bodies.  What  kind of tumor  was found at autopsy?


Autopsy  of  a  patient  who  suffered from croupous  pneumonia and died from pneumococcal sepsis  revealed  900 ml of turbid   greenish-yellow  liquid  in  the  right pleural  cavity. Pleural  leaves are dull, plephoric. Name the clinicopathological form of inflammation in the pleural cavity:


A patient died from progressive  heart failure.  Autopsy revealed  that  the  heart was enlarged in diameter, flabby. The muscle  section  exhibited  irregular blood supply. Histological  study of myocardium revealed hyperemia, the stroma was found to  have  lymphohistiocytic  infiltrates  with  degeneration of  cardiomyocytes.  The revealed  morphological changes  are indicative of:


A  patient  underwent biopsy  of  the soft palate  arches  for  a suspected tumor (macroscopy  revealed   an  ulcer   with  a dense  floor).Study  of the  biopsy material revealed mucosal necrosis with infiltration of lymphocytes,  epithelioid cells, plasma cells, single neutrophils in the submucosa.  There  were  also apparent signs  of  endovasculitis  and  perivasculitis. The described  changes are typical for:

37. Examination of the removed stomach revealed   a  deep   roundish  defect   with regular edges at the lesser curvature of the antrum.  The defect  reached the muscular tunic and was 1,5 cm in diameter. Within the  defect  floor  there  was  a  translucent dense  area  resembling of a hyaline  cartilage. What  process  had  developed in the floor of the stomach defect?

A diseased  child has a high fever, sore throat, swelling of submandibular lymph nodes. Objectively:   pharyngeal  mucosa is edematous, moderately hyperemic, the tonsils are enlarged, covered  with grayish membrane tightly adhering  to the  tissues above. Attempts to remove the membrane produce the  bleeding   defects.  What  disease are these presentations typical for?


14 days after quinsy a 15-year-old  child presented with morning  facial swelling, high  blood  pressure, \"meat   slops\"urine. Immunohistological   study    of   a   renal biopsy sample revealed  deposition of immune complexes on the basement membranes of the  capillaries  and  in the glomerular mesangium.  What disease developed in the patient?

40. Autopsy of a 78-year-old  patient revealed   that  retroperitoneal tissue  was soaked  with  blood,  the  abdominal aorta had a sacciform protrusion including a defect  with  irregular edges.  The  wall of the aorta  was here and there  of stone-like density.  This  is the  complication of  the following disease:

Study of the biopsy material revealed a  granuloma consisting of lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages with foamy cytoplasm  (Mikulicz  cells), many  hyaline globules. What disease can you think of?

42. A child entering the school for the first time  was given Mantoux  test  in order  to determine if there  was a need for revaccination.  The  reaction was negative.  What is the meaning of this test result?

At autopsy  the occipital  lobe of brain was  found  to  have  a  cavity  2,5x1,5 cm large filled with a transparent liquid. The cavity had  smooth  brownish  walls. What process had developed in the brain?


A  male  patient is 28 years  old.  Histological  study of a cervical lymph node revealed  a change of its pattern due to the proliferation of epithelioid, lymphoid cells and macrophages having nuclei in form of a  horseshoe. In  the  center  of  some  cell clusters  there  were  non-structured light-pink areas with fragments of nuclei. What disease are these changes typical for?

45. Bacteriological  examination  of purulent discharges from the urethra revealed  some  gram-negative bean- shaped  bacteria located  in the leukocytes. They  can  be  identified  as  the  causative agent of the following disease:
46. A  60-year-old   patient  with  a  long history   of  atherosclerosis  and   a  previous  myocardial   infarction   developed an attack  of  retrosternal pain.  3 days  later the  patient was hospitalized and then  died of progressive  cardiovascular insufficiency. At autopsy a white fibrous depressed area  about  3 cm in  diameter with  clear boundaries  was  found   in  the  posterior wall of the  left ventricle  and  interventricular   septum.   The   dissector   evaluated these changes as:

A 7-year-old boy got ill with diphtheria. On the third day he died of asphyxiation. At autopsy the mucosa of the larynx, trachea and bronchi had thickened, edematous, lustreless appearance and was covered with gray films which could be easily removed. Specify the type of laryngeal inflammation:


A child with suspected  tuberculosis was given Mantoux test. After 24 hours  the site of the  allergen injection  got swollen, hyperemic and painful. What are the main components that determine such response of the body?

49. Histological examination of biopsy samples taken from the thickened edges of a gastric ulcer revealed small clusters of small, markedly atypical hyperchromatic epithelial cells that were localized in the overdeveloped stroma. Specify the tumor:

A 10-year-old child was found to have a congenital hypoplasia of the left kidney. Ultrasound examination revealed that the right kidney was markedly enlarged and had regular shape. No functional disorders were revealed. Specify the process that developed in the right kidney:


A 35-year-old female patient has undergone biopsy of the breast nodules. Histological examination has revealed enhanced proliferation of the small duct and acini epithelial cells, accompanied by the formation of glandular structures of various shapes and sizes, which were located in the fibrous stroma. What is the most likely diagnosis?


A 54-year-old female was brought to the casualty department after a car accident. A traumatologist diagnosed her with multiple fractures of the lower extremities. What kind of embolism is most likely to develop in this case?


There are cortical and medullary substances separated by connective tissue layer in the endocrine gland specimen. Parenchyma cells make up three zones in cortical substance, with rounded masses in the superficial zone, parallel chords in the middle one, reticular structure of cell chords in the deep one. What gland is it?

54. A patient underwent surgical removal of a cavitary liver lesion 2 cm in diameter. It was revealed that the cavity wall was formed by dense fibrous connective tissue; the cavity contained muddy, thick, yellowish-greenish fluid with an unpleasant odor. Microscopically, the fluid consisted mainly of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. What pathological process are these morphological changes typical for?

Autopsy has revealed shrunken kidneys weighing 50 mg, with fine-grained surface and uniformly thinned substance. Microscopic investigation has shown the thickening of arteriole walls due to accumulation of homogeneous anhistic pink-coloured masses in them. Glomerules were undersized, sclerotic, with atrophied tubules. What disease are these changes characteristic of?


On the 24th day since the onset of disease, a male patient diagnosed with typhoid fever and undergoing treatment in an infectious diseases hospital has suddenly developed clinical presentations of acute abdomen leading to the death of the patient. During autopsy peritonitis has been revealed, with numerous ulcers covering the colon mucosa and reaching as deep as muscular and, in places, serous tunic. The ulcers have smooth edges and even floor. The intestinal wall is perforated. What stage of typhoid fever has the lethal complication arisen at?


 An HIV-positive patient’s cause of death is acute pulmonary insufficiency resulting from pneumonia. Pathohistological investigation of lungs has revealed interstitial pneumonia, alveolocyte desquamation and their methamorphoses: alveolocyte enlargement, large intranuclear inclusions surrounded by lightly-colored areas. Transformed cells resemble owl’s eye. Name the pneumonia causative agent:


A 37-year-old male patient developed pseudoarthrosis after a closed fracture of the femur. Specify the type of regeneration in the patient:


A patient with suspected tumor of lung had been admitted to the oncological department. Examination revealed localised pathology in the inferior lobe of the left lung. How many bronchopulmonary segments does this lobe have?

60. Tissue sampling of a 37-year-old male patient with chronic renal disease has revealed the following: sclerosis, lymphocytic and plasmocytic infiltration of renal pelvis and calices walls, dystrophy and atrophy of tubules. Remaining tubules are enlarged and stretched with colloid masses, epithelium is flattened out (\"scutiform\" or \"shield-shaped\" kidney). What is the most likely diagnosis?


Autopsy of a 50-year-old male who had tuberculosis revealed a dense gray-white nidus in form of a nodule 2 cm in diameter in the subpleural portion of the upper right lobe. The pleura in this region was thickened, in the pleural cavity there was a small amount of serous hemorrhagic fluid. Histological study of the region revealed some glandular structures with signs of cellular atypia and abnormal mitoses, which were found within the fibrous connective tissue. What other pathology had developed in the lungs?


A 10-year-old child has painful swallowing, neck edema, temperature rise up to 39, 0oC, the whole body is covered with bright-red petechial rash. Back of the throat and tonsils are hyperemic, the tongue is crimson-colored. Tonsillar surface is covered with isolated grayish-colored necrosis nidi. What disease is it?

63. A 3-year-old child with meningeal symptoms died. Postmortem macroscopy of the pia matter revealed miliary nodules which were microscopically represented by a focus of caseous necrosis with masses of epithelioid and lymphoid cells with some crescent-shaped large cells inbetween having peripheral nuclei. Specify the type of meningitis in the child:
64. X-ray examination of a patient allowed to diagnose a tumor in the superior lobe of the right lung. There is a probability of metastases spread to the following lymph nodes:

A young woman suddenly developed fever up to 39oC accompanied by a strong headache. Examination revealed marked nuchal rigidity. Spinal puncture was performed. Gram-stained smear of cerebrospinal fluid contained many neutrophils and Gram-positive diplococci. What bacteria could be the cause of this disease?

66. A patient has hoarseness of voice. During laryngoscopy a gray-white larynx tumor with papillary surface has been detected. Microscopic investigation has shown the following: growth of connective tissue covered with multilayer, strongly keratinized pavement epithelium, no cellular atypia. What is the most likely diagnosis?

During autopsy approximately 2,0 liters of pus have been found in the abdominal cavity of the corpse. Peritoneum is lustreless and has grayish shade, serous tunic of intestines has grayish-colored coating that is easily removable. Specify the most likely type of peritonitis in the patient:


Autopsy of the dead patient who died from pulmonary edema revealed a large yellow-grey nidus in the myocardium, and a fresh thrombus in the coronary artery. What is the most likely diagnosis?

69. A male patient is 28 years old. Histological study of a cervical lymph node revealed a change of its pattern due to the proliferation of epithelioid, lymphoid cells and macrophages having nuclei in form of a horseshoe. In the center of some cell clusters there were non-structured light-pink areas with fragments of nuclei. What disease are these changes typical for?


During autopsy the following has been revealed: the meninges of the upper cerebral hemispheres are extremely plethoric, of yellow-green color and are soaked with purulent effluent. What kind of meningitis is characterised by such clinical presentations?

71. A 40-year-old patient with the progressing staphylococcal purulent periodontitis developed purulent inflammation of bone marrow spaces of the alveolar process, and then of the body of mandible. Microscopy revealed thinning of bone trabeculae, foci of necrosis, bone sequesters surrounded by the connective tissue capsule. What is the most likely diagnosis?

A 40-year-old female patient has undergone thyroidectomy. Histological study of thyroid gland found the follicles to be of different size and contain foamy colloid, follicle epithelium is high and forms papillae, there is focal lymphocytic infiltration in stroma. Diagnose the thyroid gland disease:


Extensive    thromboembolic   infarction   of   the   left   cerebral  hemispheres, large septic spleen, immunocomplex glomerulonephritis, ulcers on the edges of the  aortic  valves, covered  with polypous thrombus with colonies of staphylococcus were  revealed   on  autopsy  of  the  young man  who  died  in  coma.  What   disease caused cerebral thromboemboly?


A  45 year  old  male  died  from  disseminated tuberculosis. On  autopsy  the symptoms  of tuberculosis were confirmed by both microscopical and histological analyses. All the affected organs had epithelioid cell granulomas with caseous necrosis in the centre. What kind of hypersensitivity reaction underlies the process of granuloma development?


A patient with high-titer antinuclear antibodies died from progressing  renal impairment. Autopsy  revealed   mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis and abacterial polypous  endocarditis. There was periarterial bulbar  sclerosis in spleen and  productive proliferative vasculitis  in skin. What is the most likely diagnosis?


A 50 year old patient underwent resection  of  tumour  of  large   intestine wall. Microscopically  it presents itself as fascicles of divergent collagen fibers of different thickness  and form and some monomorphous fusiform cells that are irregularly  distributed among  the  fibers. Cellular    atypia   is   not   evident.    What tumour is it?

77. A  patient who  abuses  smoking  has chronic  bronchitis.  Biopsy of his primary bronchus  revealed  multilayer pavement epithelium.  What   pathological  process was revealed  in the bronchus?
78. 2   days   after    labour    a   woman developed  shock  along  with  DIC syndrome  that caused her death.  Autopsy revealed  purulent endomyometritis, regional  purulent lymphangitis,  lymphadenitis and  purulent thrombophlebitis. There were also dystrophic alterations and interstitial inflammation of  parenchymal organs. What is the most likely diagnosis?

Acute    renal    impairment   caused death  of a bleeding patient. Autopsy revealed  enlarged kidneys  with  a  broad pale pink cortical layer expressively demarcated from  dark  red  renal  pyramids.   Macroscopic    examination  revealed lack of epithelial nuclei of convoluted tubules,  tubulorrhexis,  phlebostasis. The cell nuclei of choroid  glomus and straight tubules  were  present. What  pathology is it?


Examination of a bronchial  tissue sample revealed atrophy  of mucous membrane, cystic degeneration of glands, focal  metaplastic changes  of  lining  prismatic epithelial cells into multilayer squamous cells; increase in goblet cell number;  in some  parts  of bronchial wall and  especially  in the  mucous  membrane there  was marked cellular  inflammatory infiltration  and  growth  of granulation tissue bulging  into  the  bronchial lumen  in form  of a polyp.  What  is the  most  likely diagnosis?


Autopsy  of  a  75  year  old  patient who  had   been   suffering   from   disseminated  atherosclerosis and died under chronic cardiac failure revealed  constriction and deformation of coronary  arteries, tuberous intima  whose  section  appeared to be white and petrosal. Specify the stage of atherosclerosis morphogenesis:

82. A 71 year old man had been presenting  with  diarrhea for  10 days.  The  feces had  admixtures of blood  and  mucus.  He was delivered to a hospital in grave condition and died 2 days later. Autopsy of the body  revealed   the  following:  diphtheritic colitis with multiple  irregularly-shaped ulcers  of different depth  in both  sigmoid colon and rectus.  Bacteriological analysis revealed  Shigella. What  was the main disease?

A 46-year-old man complains of difficulties with nasal breathing. Mikulicz’s cells, accumulation of epithelioid cells, plasmocytes, lymphocytes, hyaline balls were discovered in the biopsy material of the thickened nasal mucosa. What is the most likely diagnosis?


A young man has a painless formation without marked borders in the soft tissues of his thigh. On the tissue bioptate the formation looks like flesh of fish and consists of immature fibroblast-like cells with multiple mitosis growing through the muscles. What is the most likely diagnosis?


Autopsy of a man ill with severe hypothyroidism  revealed   that   connective tissue, organ stroma, adipose and cartilaginous tissues  were  swollen,  semi- transparent, mucus-like.  Microscopic examination of  tissues  revealed   stellate cells  having  processes  with  mucus between them.  What  type  of  dystrophy is it?

86. A   28  year   old   patient  had   high arterial   pressure,  hematuria   and   facial  edemata. In  spite  of  treatment renal insufficiency  was  progressing.   6  months later  the  patient died  from  uremia.  Microscopic examination of his kidneys  and their glomerules  revealed  proliferation of capsule  nephrothelium and  of podocytes with  \"demilune\" formation, sclerosis  and hyalinosis of glomerules. What disease corresponds with the described  picture?

A 6 year old child was delivered to a hospital.  Examination revealed   that  the child  couldn’t  fix  his  eyes,  didn’t  keep his  eyes  on  toys,  eye  ground   had   the cherry-red spot sign. Laboratory analyses showed that brain, liver and spleen had high rate  of ganglioside  glycometide.  What congenital  disease is the child ill with?

88. Autopsy  of  a  49-year-old   woman who died from chronic renal insufficiency, revealed: kidneys were dense, reduced, multicoloured, with  haemorrhagic areas. Microscopic  examination revealed   some hematoxylin   bodies    in   the   nuclei   of the renal tubule  epithelium; \"wire-loop\" thickening of  the  glomerular capillary basement membrane; here and there in  the  capillaries  some  hyaline  thrombi and foci of fibrinoid necrosis were present. What is the most likely diagnosis?

A 20 year old patient died from intoxication 8 days  after  artificial  illegal abortion    performed    in    her    14-15th week    of   pregnancy.    Autopsy    of   the corpse revealed yellowish colour of eye sclera   and   of  skin,  necrotic   suppurative endometritis, multiple pulmonary abscesses,  spleen  hyperplasia with  a  big number    of   neutrophils  in   its   sinuses. What complication after abortion was developed?

90. Histological   examination  of  a  skin tissue sampling revealed granulomas consisting of macrophagal nodules with lymphocytes   and  plasmatic   cells.  There are also some big macrophages with fatty vacuoles  containing   causative   agents  of a disease packed up in form of spheres (Virchow\'s cells). Granulation tissue is well vascularized. What disease is this granuloma typical for?

Examination of a young woman revealed   a  tumour  up  to  3  cm  in  diameter  in   form   of   a   knot    localized along  the  acoustic  nerve.  The  tumour is homogenous,  soft  and  elastic,  of  pink-and-white colour. Microscopically  the tumour contains  clusters of cells with oval nuclei.  Fibrous  cell clusters  form  regular structures made  up  by  parallel  rows  of regularly  oriented cells arranged in form of  a  palisade.  Zones   between the  rows of cells are acellular and homogenous (Verocai bodies).  What tumour is it?


A section  of the  left lung was found to have  an area  of dense  red  tissue.  The area was cone-shaped, stood out distinctly from  the  healthy  tissue,  with its base  directed  to the pleura.  The dissected  tissue was granular, dark-red. What  is the  most likely diagnosis?

93. A patient with severe course of respiratory  viral infection  presented with clinical signs of progressing  heart  failure  that led to his death in the 2nd week of disease. Autopsy revealed   that  the  heart   cavities  were  significantly  dilated,   the   heart was  flabby.  Histological   examination  of the myocardium revealed  microvascular plethora  and  diffuse  stroma   infiltration with  lymphocytes   and  histiocytes.  What is the most likely diagnosis?
94. A pathology-histology laboratory received  a vermiform  appendix  up to 2,0 cm thick.  Its serous  membrane was pale, thick and covered with yellowish-green films. The  wall was flaccid, of grayish-red colour.  The  appendix lumen  was dilated and filled with yellowish-green substance. Histological   examination  revealed   that the appendix wall was infiltrated with neutrophils. Specify the appendix disease:
95. Gynecological examination of the uterine cervix in a 30-year-old  woman revealed   some  bright-red lustrous   spots that  easily  bleed  when  touched. Biopsy showed  that  a part  of the  uterine cervix was  covered  with  cylindrical  epithelium with papillary  outgrowths; in the depth  of tissue  the  growth  of glands  was present. What pathology of the uterine cervix was revealed?
96. Autopsy   of   a   man    who    died from  influenza   revealed   that   the  heart was slightly enlarged and pastose.  The surface of the incision of myocardium appeared to be pale, with specks. Microscopic  examination revealed   signs  of parenchymatous  adipose   and   hydropic degeneration, edematic stroma with scant lymphocytic and macrophage infiltration; plethoric vessels; perivascular petechial hemorrhages. What type of myocarditis is it?
97. Autopsy of a man, who had been suffering from the multiple bronchiectasis for  5 years  and  died  from  chronic  renal insufficiency, revealed that kidneys were dense  and enlarged, with thickened cortical layer of white colour with greasy lustre. What renal disease might be suspected?

Autopsy   of   a   50-year-old    man revealed  the  following  changes:  his right lung was moderately compact  in all parts, the  dissected  tissue  was found  to  be  airless, fine-grained,  dryish. Visceral pleura had  greyish-brown layers  of fibrin. What is the most likely diagnosis?

99. A  man  had  worked   in  a  coal  mine  for  over   20  years.  After   his  death autopsy   revealed    that   his   lungs   were dense,  grayish-black  and  had  large  areas of neogenic  connective tissue  containing a lot of microphages with black  pigment in the cytoplasm.  What  is the most likely diagnosis?

Colonoscopy   of   a   patient   with dysentery revealed  that the mucous membrane of the large intestine was hyperemic, edematic,  and  its surface  was covered  with grey-and-green layerings. What  morphological form  of  dysenteric colitis is it?


An   8-year-old   child   was  admitted to  the  infectious  department with  fever (up  to  38oC )  and  punctuate  bright-red skin  rash.  The  child  was  diagnosed  as having scarlet  fever. Objectively:  mucous membrane of pharynx  is apparently hyperaemic and edematic,  the  tonsils are enlarged and have dull yellowish-grey foci with some black areas.  What  inflammation is the  reason  for the  pharynx  alterations?


While examining  a patient an otolaryngologist noticed  hyperaemia and significantly edematous tonsils with a grayish film upon them. Microscopical examination of  this  film  revealed   some gram-positive bacilli  placed  at  an  angle with each other. What disease might be suspected?


Examination  of  a  patient revealed   a dense, movable skin tumour that is standing out distinctly  from the surrounding tissues. Its section is found to be white and composed  of fibrous tissue. Microscopic examination revealed  interlacing collagen fibers and few cells. What tumour is it?

104. A   2   year   old   child   had   acute respiratory   viral    infection     and    died from     cardiopulmonary    decompensation.  Autopsy revealed  that  his right  lung was hyperemic;  in the  2nd, 6th and  10th segments  and  on the  incision  there  were airless  yellowish  foci  of  irregular form, from  several  mm  up  to  1 cm large.  Microscopical examination revealed exudate consisting mainly of neutrophils in the given areas of pulmonary tissue in the alveoles, bronchioles and bronchial tubes. What is the most probable diagnosis?
105. A 23 year old man has perforation of hard  palate.  In the  area  of this perforation there was a compact well-defined formation.  Microscopic   examination  of the  resected formation revealed   a  large focus   of   caseous   necrosis   surrounded by  granulation  tissue  with  endovasculitis, cellular infiltration composed  of lymphocytes,  epithelioid cells (mainly plasmocytes). What  is the  most probable diagnosis?

A   patient  who   has   been   abusing tobacco  smoking  for a long time  has got cough  accompanied  by  excretion of  viscous mucus; weakness  after minor physical stress, pale  skin. The  patient has also lost  12,0 kg of body  weight.  Endoscopic examination of biopsy material his illness was diagnosed  as squamous cell carcinoma.  Name  a pathological process  that preceded formation of the tumour:


A 33 year old man died from uraemia. Autopsy revealed  enlarged kidneys  weighing 500,0 each and consisting  of multiple cavities 0,5-2 cm in diameter. The cavities  were  full of light-yellow  transparent liquid.  Renal  pelvis  and  ureters had  no peculiarities. What renal disease caused uraemia?


A  patient died  from  acute  cardiac insufficiency, among clinical presentations there   was  gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Examination of mucous membrane of stomach   revealed   some  defects   reaching  myenteron;  their   edges  and  bottom were   mostly   even   and   loose,   some   of them contained dark-red blood. What pathological process was revealed?


Examination   of   a   66   year   old patient  revealed   a  lytic  tumour  in  the locus of pathological rib fracture. Histologically  this tumour consists of atypical    plasmoblasts.   Further    examination  revealed   osteoporosis  in  the   bones of vertebral column and pelvis. These changes are typical for:

110. A patient had been suffering from profuse  diarrhea and vomiting for 2 days. He died from acute dehydration. Autopsy revealed  that the intestinal wall was edematic and hyperemic, with multiple haemorrhages in the  mucous  membrane. Intestine lumen contains  whitish fluid resembling of rice water. What disease caused death?

Autopsy of a 5 year old child revealed in  the  area   of  vermis  of  cerebellum a soft greyish-pink  node  2 cm in diameter with   areas   of  haemorrhage.  Histologically this tumour consisted  of atypical monomorphous small  roundish cells  with big polymorphous nuclei. What tumour is it?

112. A 46 year old patient who had been suffering from tuberculosis for 6 years died from massive pulmonary haemorrhage. Autopsy revealed   different-sixed foci  of sclerosis and caseous  necrosis  in lungs, in the upper  part of the right lung there  was a cavity 5 cm in diameter with dense grey walls,  the  cavity  contained liquid  blood and blood clots. What type of tuberculosis is it?
113. A patient ill with thrombophlebitis of his lower limbs had chest pain, blood spitting, progressing  respiratory insufficiency that  led to his death.  Autopsy diagnosed multiple lung infarctions. What is the most probable cause of their development?ow

A  4  year  old  child  complained  of pain during deglutition, indisposition. Objectively:   palatine arches  and  tonsils are  moderately edematic and  hyperemic, there  are greyish-white films up to 1 mm thick closely adhering to the subjacent tissues. What pathological process are these changes typical for?


A patient has been suffering from diarrhea for 5 day. On the fifth day colonoscopy   revealed    that    membrane of rectum  was inflamed,  there  were greyish-green  films  closely  adhering to the  subjacent   tissue.  What   is  the  most probable diagnosis?


48 hours  after  tuberculine test (Mantoux test)  a child  had  a  papule  10 mm in diameter on the spot of tuberculine injection.  What hypersensitivity mechanism underlies these changes?


6   months    after   labour    a   woman had   uterine  hemorrhage.  Gynaecological examination of uterine cavity revealed a  dark-red tissue  with  multiple   cavities resembling of a \"sponge\". Microscopic examination  of   a   tumour  revealed   in blood lacunas atypic light epithelial Langhans  cells and giant cells of syncytiotrophoblast. What tumour is it?


A 30 year old man had been suffering from  acute  respiratory disease  and  died from cardiopulmonary decompensation. Autopsy revealed  fibrinous-haemorrhagic inflammation  in  the  mucous  membrane of larynx and trachea, destructive panbronchitis, enlarged lungs that look black due to the multiple abcesses, haemorrhages, necrosis. What is the most probable postmortem diagnosis?


Autopsy  of  a  man  who  died  from burn   disease   revealed   brain   edema,   liver  enlargement as well as  enlargement of  kidneys  with  wide  light-grey  cortical layer and plethoric medullary area. Microscopic  examination revealed   necrosis of tubules  of main  segments  along  with destruction of basal  membranes, intersticium   edema   with   leukocytic   infiltration  and  haemorrhages. What  is the  most probable postmortem diagnosis?


Examination of coronary arteries revealed  atherosclerotic calcified plaques closing  vessel  lumen  by 1/3. The  muscle has multiple  whitish layers  of connective tissue.  What  process  was revealed  in the myocardium?


A   22  year   old   patient  from   the West   Ukraine  complains    of   laboured nasal breathing. Morphological examination  of biopsy material of nasal mucous membrane  revealed   lymphoid,   epitheliod, plasma cells as well as Mikulicz’s cells. What is the most probable diagnosis?

122. Examination of the anterior abdominal  wall  of  a  pregnant woman  revealed a  tumour-like  formation  that   arose   on the  spot  of a tumour that  was removed two years ago. The neoplasm  was well-defined,  dense, 2х1 cm large. Histological examination revealed that the tumour was composed  of differentiated connective tissue with prevailing  collagen fibres. What tumour might be suspected?

The liver puncture biopsy of a patient with hepatocellular insufficiency revealed hydropic  and  ballooning degenerationof hepatocytes, necrosis of certain  cells, presence of  Kaunsilmen’s bodies.  Portal and lobular stroma were infiltrated mostly with lymphocytes and macrophages as well as with a small number of polymorphonuclear lymphocytes.  What is the most likely diagnosis?


A   patient   with   tuberculosis   died from progressing cardiopulmonary decompensation. Autopsy in the region of the right lung apex revealed  a cavity 5 cm in  diameter  communicating with  lumen of  a  segmental   bronchus.  On  the  inside cavity walls are  covered  with caseous masses   with   epithelioid  and   Langhans cells beneath them.  What  morphological form of tuberculosis is it?


A 70-year-old male patient died from acute coronary  insufficiency. He had knee joint  swelling, gonycampsis  and  gonalgia during his lifetime. Pathomorphologic examination of the deformed    joints and synovial membranes revealed membrane hyperemia with multiple perivascular inflammatory infiltrations made by lymphocytes, plasmocytes and macrophagocytes. There was an accumulation of organized  fibrin covering some  areas  of synovium  membrane and looking  like rice grains in the articular liquid. What is the most likely diagnosis?

126. A 49-year-old  patient with croupous pneumonia died from pneumococcal septicemia. Autopsy  revealed  up  to  700 ml of turbid greenish-yellow foul-smelling liquid in the left pleural cavity. The pleural leaflets   were   dull  and   plethoric.  What form of pleural inflammation is it?

A patient died from cardiopulmonary decompensation. Histological  examination revealed  diffused pulmonary affection along  with interstitial edema,  infiltration of tissue by limphocytes,  macrophages, plasmocytes;  pulmonary fibrosis,  panacinar  emphysema. What  is the  most  likely diagnosis?


Acute    renal    impairment   caused death  of a bleeding patient. Autopsy revealed  enlarged kidneys  with  a  broad pale pink cortical layer expressively demarcated from  dark  red  renal  pyramids.   Macroscopic    examination  revealed lack of epithelial nuclei of convoluted tubules,  tubulorrhexis,  phlebostasis. The cell nuclei of choroid  glomus and straight tubules  were  present. What  pathology is it?


Medical  examination of  a  20-year-old woman revealed  a dense incapsulated node  1 cm in diameter that  was palpated in the  mammary gland.  The  postoperative biopsy revealed  connective tissue overgrowth around  the  mammary ducts and glandular components of different  diameter that didn’t make lobules  and bore no signs of cellular  abnormality. What  diagnosis will be made?