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1. In a young man during exercise, the minute oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide emission equalled to 1000 ml. What substrates are oxidized in the cells of his body?

A sportsman spontaneously held breath for 40 seconds, which resulted in an increase in heart rate and systemic arterial pressure. Changes of these indicators are due to activation of the following regulatory mechanisms:


An animal experiment is aimed at studying the cardiac cycle. All the heart valves are closed. What phase of the cycle is characterized by this status?

4. Feces of a patient contain high amount of undissociated fats and have grayish-white color. Specify the cause of this phenomenon:
5. A patient has increased thickness of alveolar-capillary membrane caused by a pathologic process. The direct consequence will be reduction of the following value:

The processes of heat transfer in a naked person at room temperature have been studied. It was revealed that under these conditions the greatest amount of heat is transferred by:


A patient has a traumatic injury of sternocleidomastoid muscle. This has resulted in a decrease in the following value:

8. During  an  animal  experiment, surgical damage of certain brain structures has caused deep prolonged sleep. What structure is most likely to cause such condition, if damaged?


When measuring total muscle action potential it was revealed that it was subject to the power-law relationship. The reason for this is that individual muscle fibers differ in:


A patient has insufficient blood supply to the kidneys, which has caused the development of pressor effect due to the constriction of arterial resistance vessels. This is the result of the vessels being greatly affected by the following substance:


Experimental stimulation of the sympathetic nerve branches that innervate the heart caused an increase in force of heart contractions because the membrane of typical cardiomyocytes permitted an increase in:


In a cat with decerebrate rigidity the muscle tone is to be decreased. This can be achieved by:

13. A patient complains of pain in the heart area during acute attack of gastric ulcer. What vegetative reflex can cause this painful feeling?

A female patient, having visited the factory premises with lots of dust in the air for the first time, has got cough and burning pain in the throat. What respiratory receptors, when irritated, cause this kind of reaction?


Since a patient has had myocardial infarction, his atria and ventricles contract independently from each other with a frequency of 60-70 and 35-40 per minute. Specify the type of heart block in this case:


In an experiment a dog had been conditioned to salivate at the sight of food and a flash of light. After conditioning the reflex, the light was then paired with the bell. The dog didn’t start to salivate. What type of inhibition was observed?


In course of an experiment there has been an increase in the nerve conduction velocity. This may be caused by an increase in the concentration of the following ions that are present in the solution around the cell:


A patient has severe blood loss caused by an injury. What kind of dehydration will be observed in this particular case?


A fixed-run taxi passenger has a sudden and expressed attack of tachycardia. A doctor travelling by the same taxi has managed to slow down his heart rate by pressing upon the eyeballs and thus causing the following reflex:

20. A 36-year-old female patient has a history of B2-hypovitaminosis. The most likely cause of specific symptoms (epithelial, mucosal, cutaneous, corneal lesions) is the deficiency of:  

A blood drop has been put into a test tube with 0,3% solution of NaCl. What will happen to erythrocytes?

22. In a dysentery patient undergoing treatment in the contagious isolation ward, a significant increase in packed cell volume has been observed (60%). What other value will be affected by this change?

23. A patient has the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve shifted to the left. What blood changes induce this condition?

It has been experimentally proven  that the  excitation   of  the  motor   neurons of flexor muscles is accompanied by the inhibition  of the  motor  neurons of extensor muscles. What  type of inhibition  underlies this phenomenon?

25. A  man  sitting  with  his  eyes  closed, undergoes electroencephalography. What rhythm  will be  recorded on  the  EEG if there  is an audible  signal?

Thermometry   revealed     that    the temperature of the  exposed  skin is by 1-1,5oC   lower  than  the  temperature of  the adjacent areas covered with clothing from natural fabrics. The reason  for this is that the clothes reduce  the heat loss through:

27. The temperature in a production room is  36oC .  Relative  air  humidity   is  80%. Under these  conditions the  human  body transfers heat mainly through:
28. During  the  fight, a man  had  a cardiac arrest  due  to  the  strong  blow  to  the upper  region  of  the  anterior abdominal wall. Which of the following mechanisms has led to the cardiac arrest?


An attack of tachycardia that occurred in a patient was stopped by pressing on his eyeballs.  Which  of the  following  reflexes underlies this phenomenon?

30. Workers of a conveyor  workshop received recommendations for the effective organization of working  time  and  higher  working  efficiency.  What  peculiarity of work in this workshop  causes the greatest stress for the workers?

For   the   study   of  serum   proteins various physical and physicochemical methods  can be used. In particular, serum albumins  and  globulins  can be separated by this method:

32. An  animal  has  an  increased   tonus of extensor muscles.  This is the  result  of enhanced information transmission to the motoneurons of the  spinal  cord  through the following descending pathways:

A  19-year-old   male  was  found   to have  an  elevated level  of  potassium   in the  secondary urine.  These  changes  might have  been  caused  by the  increase  in the following hormone level:

34. To assess the effectiveness  of breathing in patients, the indicator of functional residual  capacity  is used.  It  includes  the following volumes:

It is required to evaluate the level of tissue  excitability.  For  this  purpose one should determine:


During  ventricular systole, the cardiac muscle does not respond to additional stimulation because  it is in the phase of:


A male working  as a blacksmith  has been  tested  for auditory acuity. The  tests revealed 50% hearing loss in the low- frequency range  and a near-normal auditory  acuity  in the  high-frequency range. This condition has been caused by the damage  to the following structures of the auditory system:

38. Anatomical dead space is the portion of the  air that  is left in the  airways  after expiration. The reduction of the anatomical dead space is typical for the following situation:

Analysis of the experimental spirogram  of a 55-year-old  person  revealed a decrease in tidal volume and respiratory amplitude compared to  the  situation   of ten  years  ago. The  change  in these  indicators is caused by:


A 60 year old patient has impaired perception of high-frequency sounds. These changes were caused by damage of the following auditory analyzer structures:

41. Students who are taking examinations often have dry mouth.   The mechanism that causes this state is the realization of the following reflexes:

The temperature of the ambient environment is 38oC and relative air humidity is 50%. What ways of heat emission provide maintaining a constant temperature of the human body?

43. A 30 year old woman has subnormal concentration of  enzymes  in  the pancreatic juice. This might be caused by the hyposecretion of the following gastrointestinal hormone:

44. A month   after surgical constriction of rabbit’s renal artery the considerable increase of systematic arterial  pressure was observed. What of the following regulation mechanisms caused the animal’s pressure change?
45. A sportsman was examined after an intensive physical activity. The examination revealed disorder of movement coordination but the force of muscle  contractions remained the same. It can be explained by retarded speed of excitement conduction through:

After     a    long    training     session a sportsman has developed fatigue accompanied by abrupt performance decrement. What link  of the  reflex  arch was the fatigue initiated  in?


Blood minute volume of a 30 year old woman at rest is 5 l/m. What blood volume is pumped through the pulmonary vessels per minute?


A patient under test was subjected to a moderate physical stress. His minute blood volume amounted 10 l/min.  What blood volume was pumped   through his lung vessels every minute?


Parodontitis is treated with  calcium preparations and a hormone that stimulates  tooth  mineralization and inhibits tissue resorption. What hormone is it?


A man who is riding the carousel presents with increased heart rate, sweating, nausea.  This condition is caused primarily by the stimulation of the following receptors:


Atria of an experimental animal were superdistended by blood that  resulted in decreased reabsorption of Na+ and water in renal tubules.  This can be explained by the influence of the following factor upon kidneys:


Power inputs of a man were measured. In what state was this man if his power inputs were lower than basal metabolism?


A  man  is  being  measured  power inputs  on an empty  stomach,  in the lying position,  under  conditions of physical and psychic rest at a comfortable temperature. Power inputs will reach the maximum at:


When   measuring   power   inputs   of a man by the  method of indirect  calorimetry the following results were obtained: 1000 ml oxygen consumption and 800 ml carbon  dioxide liberation per minute.  The man under examination has the following respiratory coefficient:


As a result of damage to certain structures of brainstem an animal lost orientation reflexes.  What   structures were damaged?

56. Emotional stress causes activation of hormone-sensitive triglyceride lipase in the adipocytes.  What secondary mediator takes part in this process?  
57. An isolated  cell of human  heart automatically generates excitement impulses  with frequency of 60 times  per minute. This cell was taken from the following heart  structure:

During  influenza  epidemic  40%  of pupils  who  didnt go  in  for  sports  were affected  by  the  disease,  and  among  the pupils who regularly did physical exercises this index  was only 20%. What  adaptative mechanisms  determined such a low sicknesrate  of pupils  participating in the sports?

59. A  60  year  old  patient  was  found to  have  a  dysfunction   of  main  digestive enzyme  of saliva. This  causes  the  disturbance of primary hydrolysis of:
60. When  water  affects  mucous membrane of the inferior  nasal meatuses, this causes \\\"diver reflex\\\" that provokes:

Microelectrode  technique  allowed to register a potential following \"all-or-none\" law and being able of undecremental spreading.  Specify this potential:


A patient got an injury of spinal marrow   in  a  road  accident   that  caused loss of tactile sensation,  posture sense, vibration sense. What conduction tracts are damaged?

63. A  doctor  asked  a patient to  breath out  fully  after  taking  a  normal   breath. What muscles contract during such exhalation?

One  of  sections  of  central  nervous system has layerwise arrangement of neurocytes. Among  them  there  are  cells of the  following forms: stellate,  fusiform, horizontal, pyramidal. What section of central  nervous  system is this structure typical for?

65. An aged man had raise of arterial pressure under  a stress. It was caused  by activation of:

A 30-year-old  male patient with acute pancreatitis has been found to have a disorder   of   cavitary   protein  digestion. The reason  for such condition can be the hyposynthesis  and  hyposecretion of  the following enzyme:

67. During  preparation of a patient to a heart  surgery it was necessary  to measure pressure  in  heart   chambers.  In  one   of them  pressure varied  from  0 mm Hg up to  120 mm  Hg  within  one  cardiac  cycle. What heart  chamber is it?

Lung   ventilation   in   a   person    is increased   as  a  result  of  physical  activity. Which  of the  following  indices  of the external  respiration is much  higher  than in a state of rest?


As  a  result  of  activation   of  the  ion channels  of  the  external membrane the rest   potential  of  an  excitable   cell  has greatly increased. What channels were activated?

70. Which  way  of  heat  emission  by  the bodies  of greenhouse workers  is the most effective   at   the   temperature  of   36oC degrees and relative humidity of 70%?

A 35-year-old patient complains about having  severe  rhinitis  and  loss  of  sense of smell for a week. Objectively: the nasal cavity contains a lot of mucus covering the mucous membrane and blocking olfactory receptors. In what region of the nasal cavity are these receptors located?

72. During  fighting a man had a cardiac arrest  as a result  of a hard  blow  to  the upper  region  of anterior abdominal wall. Which of the described  mechanisms might have provoked the cardiac arrest?

There  is a severe time restriction for people’s  staying  at  a height  of over  800 m  above   the  sea  level  without   oxygen bombs.  What  is the  life limiting factor  in this case?


During  an  experiment the  myotatic reflex has been studied in frogs. After extension in  a  skeletal  muscle  its reflectory contraction was absent. The reason  for  it  might  be  a  dysfunction   of the following receptors:


After  a craniocerebral trauma a patient lost the ability to execute learned purposeful movements (apraxia). The injury is most likely localized in the following region of the cerebral cortex:


Tissue inosytol triphosphates are generated as  a  result  of  the  phosphatidylinositol   diphosphate  hydrolysis   and act  as  secondary   agents   (mediators)  in the  mechanism  of hormone action.  Their effect in cells is directed at:


A    newborn   develops    dyspepsia after   the   milk  feeding.   When   the   milk is substituted by the  glucose  solution the  dyspepsia  symptoms  disappear. The newborn  has the subnormal activity of the following enzyme:


A  man  having  a  hearing  loss  after a head trauma was delivered to the neurosurgery department.  The  cause  of the  hearing  loss might  be the  damage  of the following lobe of cerebral cortex:

79. Which muscle contraction will be observed  in  the   upper   extremity  during holding  (but  not  moving)  a load  in a certain position?
80. A patient consulted  a doctor  about  a sensation of  imbalance  which  appeared after a trauma. Which nerve is damaged?
81. During    an   experiment  a   skeletal muscle is stimulated by a series of electric impulses.  What  type  of muscle  contraction  will be  observed   provided   that  each subsequent  impulse   comes  in  the  period  of  shortening of  the  previous  single muscle contraction?

ECG  of a patient shows prolongation of T-wave. This is caused  by deceleration in ventricles of:


A  newborn  child  suffers  from  milk curdling in stomach, this means that soluble  milk proteins (caseins)  transform to   insoluble   proteins    (paracaseins)  by means   of   calcium   ions   and   a  certain enzyme.  What  enzyme  takes  part  in this process?

84. Histological examination of a 40 year old man’s thymus revealed  reduced share of parenchymatous elements, increased share  of adipose  and loose connective tissue, its enrichment with thymus  bodies. The organ’s mass was unchanged. What is this phenomenon called?


People  adapted to high external temperatures  have  such  peculiarity: profuse   sweating   isn’t  accompanied  by loss of large volumes  of sodium  chloride. This is caused by the effect of the following hormone upon the perspiratory glands:

86. After  destruction of  CNS  structures an animal  lost orientative reflexes.  What structure was destroyed?

A  patient staggers  and  walks astraddle. He  has  hypomyotonia of arm and leg muscles, staccato  speech.  In what brain section is this affection localized?


Vagus branches that  innervate heart are  being  stimulated  during   an  experiment.  This caused reduction of heart  rate due  to  the  intensification of the  following process (through the cell membrane of cardiac pacemaker):

89. Voluntary breath-holding caused increase   of  respiration  depth   and frequency.   The   main  factor   stimulating these changes of external  respiration is:
90. Surface  with an intact toad  on it was inclined to the right. Tone of extensor muscles  became  reflectory  higher  due  to the activation  of the following receptors:
91. A  patient got  a trauma that  caused dysfunction  of  motor   centres  regulating activity  of  head  muscles.  In  what  parts of cerebral cortex  is the respective centre normally localized?

A    patient   was    diagnosed   with paralysis of facial and masticatory muscles.  The   haematoma  is  inside  the genu of internal capsule. What conduction tract is damaged?

93. A young woman who entered a production department where  it strongly smelt of paints and varnishes had a bronchospasm. This reflex was caused  by irritation of the following receptors:
94. An isolated  muscle fiber is under examination. It  was established that  the threshold of stimulation force became  significantly lower. What is the cause of this phenomenon?

A patient consumed  a lot of reach in proteins  food that  caused increase  of rate of proteolytic enzymes of pancreatic juice. It is also accompanied by increase  of rate of the following enzyme:


In course of an experiment thalamocortical tracts  of an animal  were cut. What type of sensory perception remained intact?


An  infectious   disease  caused contractive activity  of  muscles  that contract   and  dilate  eye  pupil  (paralytic state). What functional eye system was damaged?


Brain tomography revealed  a tumour in the region of red nucleus. What part of brain is damaged?

99. The temperature of the ambient environment is 38oC and relative  air humidity is 50%. What ways of heat emission provide maintaining a constant temperature of the human  body?

A man has normal  sensitivity of his finger  skin,  however  he  doesn’t sense  his wedding ring around the finger. What process  induced   by  wearing  of  the  ring has caused this phenomenon?


ECG  study  showed  that  the  T -waves were  positive  in  the  standard extremity leads, their  amplitude and  duration were normal.   The  right  conclusion   would  be that  the  following  process  runs  normally in the heart  ventricles:


A  patient has  a  transversal laceration in the spinal cord. What respiratory changes will result from this?


In   a   healthy   adult   speed   of   the excitement conduction through the  atrioventricular node is 0,02-0,05 m/sec. Atrioventricular delay enables:


Products of some  proteins hydrolysis and   modification    are   the   biologically active substances  called hormones. Lipotropin,    corticotropin,    melanotropin and endorphins are synthesized  in the hypophysis  of the following protein:


A middle-aged man went to a foreign country because he had been offered a job there.  However he had been unemployed for  quite   a  long  time.  What   endocrine glands were exhausted most of all in this man?


Cooling of the human body in water is much  more  faster  than  in the  air.  What way  of  heat  emission  in  water  is much more effective?


After  a surgery  a 36-year-old  woman was given an intravenous injection of concentrated albumin  solution.  This  has induced   intensified   water   movement  in the following direction:


Examination of  a  patient suffering from  chronic  hepatitis revealed  a significant decrease in the synthesis and secretion of bile acids. What process will be mainly disturbed in the patient’s bowels?


While determining power inputs of a patient’s  organism  it was established that the   respiratory  coefficient   equaled  1,0. This  means  that  in the  cells of the  patient the following substances are mainly oxidized:

110. During   an  experiment  the   dorsal roots of the spinal cord of an animal have been  cut. What  changes  will be observed in the innervation zone?
111. A  patient has  osmotic  pressure of blood plasma at the rate of 350 mOsmol/l (norm  is 300 mOsmol/l).  This will cause hypersecretion of the following hormone:

During   an  experiment  vagus branches that  innervate heart  are  being stimulated. This  has  stopped conduction of excitement from the atria to the ventricles. The reason  for it are electrophysical changes in the following structures:

113. A man presents with increased  heart rate, mydriatic pupils, dry mouth. This condition results  from  the  activation   of the following system of function  regulation:

Vagus nerves of an experimental animal have been cut on the both sides. What respiratory changes will result from this?

115. A  60-year-old   patient  presents with weakened peristaltic activity of the bowels. Which of the following foodstuffs would stimulate peristalsis most of all?

A  student takes  notes  of  a  lecture. Quality  of his notes  became  significantly worse when his neighbours began talking. What type of conditional reflex inhibition was the cause of it?

117. ECG  of a patient with hyperfunction of thyroid  gland showed  heart  hurry.  It is indicated by depression of the following ECG element:
118. As  a result  of destruction of certain brainstem structures an  animal  has  lost its  orientative  reflexes   in  response   to strong   photic   stimuli.   What   structures were destroyed?y
119. A patient with disturbed cerebral circulation   has  problems with  deglutition. What part of brain was damaged?
120. Golgi  complex   exports   substances from    a   cell   due    to    the    fusion    of the membrane saccule with the cell membrane.  The   saccule   contents  flows out. What process is it?

Rest  potential of a cell equals  80 mV . At what stage of action potential did the membrane potential equal +30 mV ?

122. A  35  year  old  man  got  an  injury that  caused  complete disruption of  spinal  cord  at  the  level of the  first cervical segment.   What  respiration changes  will be observed?
123. In  course  of an  experiment a peripheral section of vagus of an expiremental animal is being stimulated. What changes will be observed?
124. A patient complains  of dizziness and hearing loss. What nerve is damaged?
125. In course of an experiment a skeletal muscle is being stimulated by a series of electric impulses. What type of muscle contraction will arise, if every subsequent impulse comes in the period of relaxation of single muscle contraction?