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Decreased blood supply to the organs causes hypoxia that activates fibroblasts function. Volume of what elements is increased in this case?
Microspecimen of red bone marrow contains multiple capillaries through the walls of which mature blood cells penetrate into the bloodstream. What type of capillaries are these?
A tissue sample of benign tumor was studied under the electron microscope. A lot of small (15-20 nm) spherical bodies, consisting of 2 unequal subunits were detected. These are:
In the specimen of one of the parts of respiratory system a tubular organ was found. It has low epithelium, well developed muscular tunic, glands and cartilage are absent. Name this organ:
In course of indirect histogenesis of tubular bone tissue a plate is formed between epiphyseal and diaphyseal ossification centres that provides further lengthwise growth of bones. What structure is it?
An electron micrograph of a kidney fragment presents an afferent arteriole. Under its endothelium some big cells can be seen that contain secretory granules. What type of cells is it?
A patient complains of dryness of head skin, itching, fragility and loss of hair. After examination he was diagnosed with seborrhea. Disturbed activity of which cells caused this condition?
In course of an experiment a big number of stem cells of red bone marrow was in some way destructed. Regeneration of which cell populations in the loose connective tissue will be inhibited?
A pathological process in bronchi resulted in epithelium desquamation. What cells will regenerate bronchial epithelium?
A histological specimen of spleen shows a vessel with a wall consisting of endothelium and subendothelial layer, median membrane is absent, exterior membrane inosculates with the layers of spleen connective tissue. What vessel is it?
An electronic microphotograph shows a macrophagic cell with erythrocytes at different stages of differentiation located along its processes. This is the cell of the following organ:
A histological specimen presents a receptor zone of a sensoepithelial sense organ. Cells of this zone are placed upon the basal membrane and include the following types: external and internal receptor cells, external and internal phalangeal cell, stem cells, external limiting cells and external supporting cell. The described receptor zone belongs to the following sense organ:
In the pubertal period cells of the male sexual glands start producing the male sexual hormone testosterone that is responsible for formation of the secondary sexual characters. What cells of the male sexual glands produce this hormone?
A microspecimen of the submandibular salivary gland shows some basket-shaped cells concentrated around the acines and excretory ducts. These cells surround bases of the serous cells and are called myoepitheliocytes. These cells relate to the following tissue:
Examination of an ovary specimen stained by hematoxylin-eosine revealed a follicle in which follicular epithelium consisted of 1-2 layers of cubic cells. There was also a bright red membrane around the ovocyte. What follicle is it?
A histological specimen presents an artery. One of the membranes of its wall has flat cells lying on the basal membrane. What type of cells is it?
Study of fingerprints (dactylography) is used by criminalists for personal identification as well as for diagnostics of genetic abnormalities, particularly Dawn’s disease. What layer of skin determines individuality of fingerprints?
A histological specimen of a kidney shows a part of the distal tubule going between the afferent and efferent arteriole. The cells building the tubule wall have dense nuclei; basal membrane is absent. Such structural formation is called:
A histological specimen shows a blood vessel. Its inner coat is composed by endothelium, subendothelium and internal elastic membrane. The middle coat is enriched with smooth myocytes. Such morphological characteristics are typical for the following vessel:
Pyeloureterography X-ray photo showed a renal pelvis with minor calyces only (major calyces were absent). What form of urinary tracts of a kidney was revealed?
A microspecimen of heart shows rectangular cells from 50 to 120mcm large with central position of nucleus, developed myofibrils. The cells are connected by intercalated discs. These cells are responsible for the following function:
A histological specimen of kidney shows a structure consisting of a glomerulus of fenestrated capillaries and a bilayer epithelial capsule. Specify this structure:
An electron microphotography of a fragment of proper gastric gland shows a big irregular round-shaped cell. There are a lot of intracellular tubules and mitochondria in the cytoplasm. Specify this cell:
Electronic microphotography of pulmonary alveole’s wall presents a big cell. Its cytoplasm has a lot of mitochondria, developed Golgi apparatus, osmiophil lamellated corpuscles. What is the main function of this cell?
In course of a conditional experiment the development of mesenchyma cells was completely inhibited. Development of the following muscular tissue will be disturbed:
One of sections of central nervous system has layerwise arrangement of neurocytes. Among them there are cells of the following forms: stellate, fusiform, horizontal, pyramidal. What section of central nervous system is this structure typical for?
Study of the biopsy material of an embryo revealed a zone of developmental abnormality in a somite. The zone was located close to the endoderm and the notochord. What formations may have abnormal development in case of pregnancy continuation?
A specimen of pia mater includes a vessel whose wall doesn’t have the tunica media, the tunica externa is adherent to the surrounding tissues, the intima is composed of a basement membrane and endothelium. What vessel is it?
A 13-year-old teenager underwent X-ray examination of the hip joint. Examination revealed a 3 mm wide radiolucent zone between the head and the shaft of femur. This situation should be evaluated as:
Alveolar space of the acinus was invaded by some bacteria which interacted with the surfactant. This led to the activation of the cells that are localized in the alveolar walls and on the surface. What cells are these?
Negative environmental factors have caused the dysfunction of myosatellite cells. What function of the whole muscle fibre is likely to be changed in this case?
A specimen of a parenchymal organ shows poorly delineated hexagonal lobules surrounding a central vein, and the interlobular connective tissue contains embedded triads (an artery, a vein and an excretory duct). What organ is it?
As a result of a mechanical injury an over 10 cm long portion of a peripheral nerve was damaged. This led to the impairment of the upper limb activity. The patient was offered nerve transplantation. What glial cells will participate in regeneration and provide the trophism of the injured limb?
Human skin has a high breaking strength. It is known that the skin consists of epithelial tissue and two kinds of connective tissue. Which of the following tissues provides the skin strength?
A 22-year-old female student consulted a physician about fever up to 38oC, weakness, sore throat. Objectively: there is white coating of the tongue. What histological structures of the tongue are involved in the formation of this coating?
The receptors under study provide transfer of information to the cortex without thalamic involvement. Specify these receptors:
In the course of an experiment adenohypophysis of an animal has been removed. The resulting atrophy of thyroid gland and adrenal cortex has been caused by deficiency of the following hormone:
An electron micrograph shows a cell-to-cell adhesion consisting, in each cell, of an attachment plaque. The intercellular space is filled with electron-dense substance including transmembrane fibrillar structures. Specify this adhesion:
There are cortical and medullary substances separated by connective tissue layer in the endocrine gland specimen. Parenchyma cells make up three zones in cortical substance, with rounded masses in the superficial zone, parallel chords in the middle one, reticular structure of cell chords in the deep one. What gland is it?
Histological specimen of a 10-day human embryo represents 2 contacting sacs (amniotic and yolk sacs). Specify the structure that separates the amniotic cavity from the yolk sac:
An electron micrograph shows a cell of neural origin. The terminal portion of the cell dendrite has cylindrical shape and consists of 1000 closed membrane disks. What cell is represented by the micrograph?