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A 25-year-old man has spent a long time in the sun under high air humidity. As a result of it his body temperature rose up to 39oC . What pathological process is it?
A 45-year-old woman has breast cancer. Her left arm has symptoms of lymphatic system insufficiency - limb edema, lymph node enlargement. What form of lymphatic circulation insufficiency is it?
A tooth extraction in a patient with chronic persistent hepatitis was complicated with prolonged hemorrhage. What is the reason for the haemorrhagic syndrome?
A pregnant woman was registered in an antenatal clinic and underwent complex examination for a number of infections. Blood serum contained IgM to the rubella virus. What is this result indicative of?
After a craniocerebral trauma a patient lost the ability to execute learned purposeful movements (apraxia). The injury is most likely localized in the following region of the cerebral cortex:
After an immunoassay a child was diagnosed with immunodeficiency of humoral immunity. What is the reason for the primary immunodeficiency development in the child?
A child with a history of frequent angine and pharyngitis has been diagnosed with lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. His appearance is characterised by pastosity and paleness, muscular tissue is poorly developed. Lymphocytosis is present. What kind of diathesis is it?
A male patient has been diagnosed with gastric ulcer. Bacteriological examination of biopsy material from the affected part of stomach revealed small colonies of gram-negative, oxide reductase-positive flexibacteria that grew on the chocolate agar on the fifth day. Which of the following microorganisms is the most likely causative agent?
Blood count of an athlete is as follows: erythrocytes - 5, 5 · 1012/l, Hb-180 g/l, leukocytes - 7 · 109/l, neutrophils -64%, basophils - 0,5%, eosinophils - 0,5%, monocytes - 8%, lymphocytes - 27%. First of all, such results indicate the stimulation of:
An adult man presents with systemic arterial pressure drop from 120/70 to 90/50 mmHg. This resulted in reflex vasoconstriction. Vasoconstriction will be minimal in the following organ:
During surgical manipulations a patient has been given novocaine injection for anesthesia. 10 minutes later the patient developed paleness, dyspnea, hypotension. What type of allergic reaction is it?
A patient with marked pneumofibrosis that developed after infiltrating pulmonary tuberculosis has been diagnosed with respiratory failure. What is its pathogenetic type?
Blood plasma of a healthy man contains several dozens of proteins. During an illness new proteins can originate, namely the protein of \"acute phase\". Select such protein from the listed below:
A student failed to answer all the questions of examination paper correctly. As a result he blushed, felt hot and lost confidence. What type of arterial hyperemia has developed in this case?
A patient presents with icteritiousness of skin, scleras and mucous membranes. Blood plasma the total bilirubin is increased, stercobilin is increased in feces, urobilin is increased in urine. What type of jaundice is it?
A 38-year-old male patient has been ill with systemic lupus erythematosus for three years. He was diagnosed with diffuse renal affection accompanied by massive edemata and expressive proteinuria. What is the most likely cause of proteinuria development?
Before a surgery a blood sample of a 30-year-old man has been typed. Blood is Rh-positive. Standard serums of such groups as 0 αβ (I), Аβ (II), Вα (III) didn’t activate erythrocyte agglutination reaction. The group of the analyzed blood is:
A patient complains of hydruria (7 liters per day) and polydipsia. Examination reveals no disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. These abnormalities might be caused by the dysfunction of the following endocrine gland:
A 45-year-old patient was admitted to the cardiological department. ECG data: negative P wave overlaps QRS complex, diastolic interval is prolonged after extrasystole. What type of extrasystole is it?
A 19-year-old female patient has had low haemoglobin rate of 90-95 g/l since childhood. Blood count results obtained after hospitalisation are as follows: erythrocytes - 3, 2 · 1012/l, Hb- 85 g/l, colour index - 0,78; leukocytes - 5, 6 · 109/l, platelets - 210 · 109/l. Smear examination revealed anisocytosis, poikilocytosis and target cells. Reticulocyte rate is 6%. Iron therapy was ineffective. What blood pathology corresponds with the described clinical presentations?
A female patient presents with endocrine dysfunction of follicular cells of the ovarian follicles resulting from an inflammation. The synthesis of the following hormone will be inhibited:
A 32-year-old patient consulted a doctor about the absence of lactation after parturition. Such disorder might be explained by the deficit of the following hormone:
The patient with complaints of permanent thirst applied to the doctor. Hyperglycemia, polyuria and increased concentration of 17-ketosteroids in the urine were revealed. What disease is the most likely?
A patient has corestenoma. What is the reason of such condition?
A patient is 44 years old. Laboratory examination of his blood revealed that content of proteins in plasma was 40 g/l. What influence will be exerted on the transcapillary water metabolism?
In allergic diseases, a dramatic increase in basophilic leukocyte number in patients’ blood is observed. This phenomenon is due to the following basophil function:
A patient has been admitted to the contagious isolation ward with signs of jaundice caused by hepatitis virus. Which of the symptoms given below is strictly specific for hepatocellular jaundice?
A public utility specialist went down into a sewer well without protection and after a while lost consciousness. Ambulance doctors diagnosed him with hydrogen sulfide intoxication. What type of hypoxia developed?
A child with a normal karyotype is diagnosed with cleft lip and hard palate, defects of the cardiovascular system, microcephaly. The child’s mother suffered rubella during pregnancy. This pathology in the child may be an example of:
A 28-year-old patient undergoing treatment in the pulmonological department has been diagnosed with pulmonary emphysema caused by splitting of alveolar septum by tissular tripsin. The disease is caused by the congenital deficiency of the following protein:
Pancreas is known as a mixed gland. Endocrine functions include production of insulin by beta cells. This hormone affects the metabolism of carbohydrates. What is its effect upon the activity of glycogen phosphorylase (GP) and glycogen synthase (GS)?
A patient complains of palpitation after stress. The pulse is 104 bpm, P-Q=0,12 seconds, there are no changes of QRS complex. What type of arrhythmia does the patient have?
A patient has been diagnosed with ARVI. Blood serum contains immunoglobulin M. What is the stage of infection in this case?
Examination of a pregnant woman having Rh-negative blood revealed high level of antierythrocytic antibodies. For its reduction she was implanted with her husband’s Rh-positive skin graft. The graft was rejected in two weeks. Its microscopic examination revealed circulatory disturbance, edema and cellular infiltration with lymphocytes, neutrophils and macrophages predominance. What is the most likely pathology?
A 49-year old female patient has limitation of left limbs arbitrary movements. Muscular tonus of left hand and leg is overstrained and spasmodic, local tendon reflexes are strong, pathological reflexes are presented. What is the most likely development mechanism of hypertension and hyperreflexia?
A concentrated solution of sodium chloride was intravenously injected to an animal. This caused decreased reabsorption of sodium ions in the renal tubules. It is the result of the following changes of hormonal secretion:
A newborn child with pylorostenosis has often repeating vomiting accompanied by apathy, weakness, hypertonicity, sometimes convulsions. What disorder form of acid-base balance is it?
Autopsy of a 75-year-old man with a long history of atherosclerosis revealed a grey irregular-shaped focus of loose consistency in the right parietotemporal region of brain. What is the most likely cause of this process?
Which way of heat emission by the bodies of greenhouse workers is the most effective at the temperature of 36oC degrees and relative humidity of 70%?
After transfusion of 200 ml of blood a patient presented with body temperature rise up to 37, 9oC . Which of the following substances is the most likely cause of temperature rise?
As a result of continuous starvation the glomerular filtration rate has increased by 20%. The most probable cause of the glomerular filtration alteration under the mentioned conditions is:
A coprological survey revealed light-colored feces containing drops of neutral fat. The most likely reason for this condition is the disorder of:
A 30-year-old male patient with acute pancreatitis has been found to have a disorder of cavitary protein digestion. The reason for such condition can be the hyposynthesis and hyposecretion of the following enzyme:
Autopsy of a 73-year-old man who had been suffering from the coronary heart disease along with cardiac insufficiency for a long time revealed: nutmeg liver, brown induration of lungs, cyanotic induration of kidneys and spleen. What kind of circulation disorder was the cause of such effects?
The minute blood volume in a patient with transplanted heart has increased as a result of physical activity. What regulative mechanism is responsible for these changes?
A 46-year-old patient suffering from the diffuse toxic goiter underwent resection of the thyroid gland. After the surgery the patient presents with appetite loss, dyspepsia, increased neuromuscular excitement. The body weight remained unchanged. Body temperature is normal. Which of the following has caused such a condition in this patient?
An aged man had raise of arterial pressure under a stress. It was caused by activation of:
12 hours after an acute attack of retrosternal pain a patient presented a jump of aspartate aminotransferase activity in blood serum. What pathology is this deviation typical for?
Heart rate of a 30-year-old man under emotional stress reached 112 bpm. The reason for the heart rate increase is the altered condition of the following conducting system of heart:
Quite often the cause of secondary immunodeficiency is an infection involvement, when the causative agents propagate directly in the cells of immune system and destroy it. The following diseases are characterized by:
A patient has been diagnosed with influenza. His condition became drastically worse after taking antipyretic drugs. His consciousness is confused, AP is 80/50 mm Hg, Ps is 140/m, body temperature dropped down to 35, 8oC . What complication developed in this patient?
After taking poor-quality food a patient developed repeated episodes of diarrhea. On the next day he presented with decreased arterial pressure, tachycardia, extrasystole. Blood pH is 7,18. These abnormalities were caused by the development of:
A male patient has been diagnosed with acute radiation disease. Laboratory examination revealed a considerable reduction of platelet serotonin level. The likely cause of platelet serotonin reduction is the disturbed metabolism of the following substance:
A 45 year old male died from disseminated tuberculosis. On autopsy the symptoms of tuberculosis were confirmed by both microscopical and histological analyses. All the affected organs had epithelioid cell granulomas with caseous necrosis in the centre. What kind of hypersensitivity reaction underlies the process of granuloma development?
A 26 year old pregnant woman is under treatment at an in-patient hospital. After a continuous attack of vomiting she was found to have reduced volume of circulating blood. What kind of change in general blood volume is the case?
A child is pale, pastose, muscular tissue is bad developed, lymph nodes are enlarged. He often suffers from angina and pharyngitis, blood has signs of lymphocytosis. The child is also predisposed to autoallergic diseases. What type of diathesis can be presumed in this case?
A patient with high-titer antinuclear antibodies died from progressing renal impairment. Autopsy revealed mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis and abacterial polypous endocarditis. There was periarterial bulbar sclerosis in spleen and productive proliferative vasculitis in skin. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Toxic affection of liver results in dysfunction of protein synthesis. It is usually accompanied by the following kind of dysproteinemia:
An infectious disease unit admitted a patient with signs of jaundice caused by hepatitis virus. Select an indicator that is specific only for parenchymatous jaundice:
A 4 year old child with hereditary renal lesion has signs of rickets, vitamin D concentration in blood is normal. What is the most probable cause of rickets development?
Examination of a patient revealed II grade obesity. It is known that he consumes a lot of sweets and rich food, has sedentary way of life. That’s why anabolic metabolism has the priority in his organism. Which of the following pathways is amphibolic?
Examination of a 42 year old patient revealed a tumour of adenohypophysis. Objectively: the patient’s weight is 117 kg, he has moon-like hyperemic face, red- blue striae of skin distension on his belly. Osteoporosis and muscle dystrophy are present. AP is 210/140 mm Hg. What is the most probable diagnosis?
Examination of a child who frequently suffers from infectious diseases revealed that IgG concentration in blood serum was 10 times less than normal, IgA and IgM concentration was also significantly reduced. Analysis showed also lack of B-lymphocytes and plasmocytes. What disease are these symptoms typical for?
A 50 year old patient has been taking treatment thrice for the last 6 months because of fractures caused by domestic accidents. Microscopical examination of bony tissue revealed foci of lacunar resolution, giant-cell granulomas in the tumour-like formations, cysts. Bony tissue was substituted by fibrous connective tissue. Examination revealed also adenoma of parathyroid gland and hypercalcemia. What is the most probable diagnosis?
A 5-month-old boy was hospitalized for tonic convulsions. He has a life-time history of this disease. Examination revealed coarse hair, thinned and fragile nails, pale and dry skin. In blood: calcium - 1,5 millimole/l, phosphor - 1,9 millimole/l. These changes are associated with:
As a result of a road accident a 26- year-old man is in the torpid phase of shock. Blood count: leukocytes - 3, 2 · 109/l. What is the leading mechanism of leukopenia development?
A patient presented to a hospital with complaints about quick fatigability and significant muscle weakness. Examination revealed an autoimmune disease that causes functional disorder of receptors in the neuromuscular synapses. This will result in the disturbed activity of the following mediator:
A 49 year old woman spent a lot of time standing. As a result of it she got leg edema. What is the most likely cause of the edema?
Examination of patients with periodontitis revealed the interdependence between the rate of affection of periodontal tissues and the amount of lysozymes in saliva and gingival liquid. These results can be obtained during studying the following protection system of an organism:
A 10 year old child had the mantoux tuberculin test administered. 48 hours later a papule up to 8 mm in diameter appeared on the site of the injection. What type of hypersensitivity reaction developed after the tuberculin injection?
A patient has been diagnosed with alkaptonuria. Choose an enzyme whose deficiency can be the reason for this pathology:
Blood analysis of a patient with jaundice reveals conjugated bilirubinemia, increased concentration of bile acids. There is no stercobilinogen in urine. What type of jaundice is it?
A disaster fighter at a nuclear power plant developed hemorrhagic syndrome on the background of acute radiation disease. What is the most important factor of syndrome pathogenesis?
A 42 year old patient complains of pain in the epigastral area, vomiting; vomit masses have the colour of \"coffee-grounds\", the patient also has melena. Anamnesis records gastric ulcer. Blood formula: erythrocytes - 2, 8 · 1012/l, leukocytes - 8 · 109/l, Hb- 90 g/l. What complication is it?
After a serious psychoemotional stress a 48 year old patient suddenly developed acute heart ache irradiating to the left arm. Nitroglycerine relieved pain after 10 minutes. What is the leading pathogenetic mechanism of this process development?
A 63 years old male patient who had been suffering from chronic diffuse obstructive disease, pulmonary emphysema, for 15 years died from cardiac insufficiency. Autopsy revealed nutmeg liver cirrhosis, cyanotic induration of kidneys and spleen, ascites, edemata of lower limbs. These changes of internal organs are typical for the following disease:
From the group of children who were eating sweet sappy watermelon two kids developed the signs of poisoning: rapid weakness, dizziness, headache, vomiting, edema, tachycardia, cyanosis of mouth, ears, tips of the fingers cyanosis. High concentration of nitrates was detected. What is the leading mechanism of the pathogenesis of the poisoning in the two children?
HIV has gp41 and gp120 on its surface interacts with target cells of an organism. Which of the following human lymphocyte antigens is gp120 complementary bound with?
A man with a long-term history of bronchial asthma died from asphyxia. Histological examination of his lungs revealed that the lumens of bronchioles and minor bronchi contained a lot of mucus with some eosinophils. There was also sclerosis of interalveolar septa, dilatation of alveoli lumens. What mechanism accounts for the development of hypersensitivity reaction?
A patient suffering from chronic myeloleukemia has got the following symptoms of anemia: decreased number of erythrocytes and low haemoglobin concentration, oxyphilic and polychromatophilic normocytes, microcytes. What is the leading pathogenetic mechanism of anemia development?
A patient with obliterating endarteritis underwent ganglionic sympathectomy. What type of arterial hyperaemia should have developed as a result of the surgery?
A 50 year old patient suffers from essential hypertension. After a physical stress he experienced muscle weakness, breathlessness, cyanosis of lips, skin and face. Respiration was accompanied by distinctly heard bubbling rales. What mechanism underlies the development of this syndrome?
After the traumatic tooth extraction a patient is complaining of acute, dull, poorly-localized pain in gingiva, body temperature rise up to 37, 5oC . The patient has been diagnosed with alveolitis. Specify the kind of pain in this patient:
ECG of a patient shows prolongation of T-wave. This is caused by deceleration in ventricles of:
After an attack of bronchial asthma a patient had his peripheral blood tested. What changes can be expected?
A patient with a history of chronic glomerulonephritis presents with azotemia, oliguria, hypo- and isosthenuria, proteinuria. What is the leading factor in the pathogenesis of these symptoms development under chronic renal failure?
Having helped to eliminate consequences of a failure at a nuclear power plant, a worker got an irradiation doze of 500 roentgen. He complains of headache, nausea, dizziness. What changes in leukocytes quantity can be expected 10 hours after irradiation?
After severe viral hepatitis a 4 year old boy presents with vomiting, occasional loss of consciousness, convulsions. Blood test revealed hyperammoniemia. Such condition is caused by a disorder of the following biochemical hepatic process:
A child has an acute renal failure. What biochemical factor found in saliva can confirm this diagnosis?
A 62 year old woman complains of frequent pain attacks in the area of her chest and backbone, rib fractures. Her doctor suspected myeloma (plasmocytoma). What of the following laboratory characteristics will be of the greatest diagnostic importance?
Parodontitis is treated with calcium preparations and a hormone that stimulates tooth mineralization and inhibits tissue resorption. What hormone is it?
Vegetative abnormalities in the sleep, heat regulation, all kinds of metabolism, diabetes insipidus are developing in the patient due to growth of the tumour in the III ventricle of brain. Irritation of the nucleus of what part of the brain can cause this symptoms?
A man has a considerable decrease in diuresis as a result of 1,5 l blood loss. The primary cause of such diuresis disorder is the hypersecretion of the following hormone:
A patient presents with the following motor activity disturbances: tremor, ataxia and asynergia movements, dysarthria. The disturbances are most likely to be localized in:
After a tourniquet application a patient was found to have petechial haemorrhages. The reason for it is the dysfunction of the following cells:
A child has abnormal formation of tooth enamel and dentin as a result of low concentration of calcium ions in blood. Such abnormalities might be caused by deficiency of the following hormone:
A month after surgical constriction of rabbit’s renal artery the considerable increase of systematic arterial pressure was observed. What of the following regulation mechanisms caused the animal’s pressure change?
The temperature of the ambient environment is 38oC and relative air humidity is 50%. What ways of heat emission provide maintaining a constant temperature of the human body?
A female patient with a tumour of pancreas has developed mechanic jaundice resulting from compression of a bile-excreting duct. Which duct is compressed?
Chronic inflammation and transformation of the one-layer ciliated epithelium into multiple-layers flat epithelium was revealed in the thickened mucous membrane of the bronchus bioptate of the patient with smoke abuse. Which of the processes is the most likely?
A hospital has admitted a patient complaining of abdominal bloating, diarrhea, flatulence after eating protein foods. These signs are indicative of the impaired digestion of proteins and their increased degradation. Which of the following compounds is the product of this process?
A patient with a pathology of the cardiovascular system developed edemata of the lower extremities. What is the mechanism of cardiac edema development?
A patient with extensive burns of torso skin exhibits signs of severe intoxication. What stage of the burn disease is this typical for?
A 25-year-old patient consulted a doctor about dysmenorrhea and infertility. Examination revealed that the patient was 145 cm high and had underdeveloped secondary sex characteristics, alar folds on the neck. Cytological study didn’t reveal any Barr bodies in the somatic cells. What diagnosis was made?
Thermometry revealed that the temperature of the exposed skin is by 1-1,5o lower than the temperature of the adjacent areas covered with clothing from natural fabrics. The reason for this is that the clothes reduce the heat loss through:
The temperature in a production room is 36oC . Relative air humidity is 80%. Under these conditions the human body transfers heat mainly through:
14 days after quinsy a 15-year-old child presented with morning facial swelling, high blood pressure, \"meat slops\" urine. Immunohistological study of a renal biopsy sample revealed deposition of immune complexes on the basement membranes of the capillaries and in the glomerular mesangium. What disease developed in the patient?
A patient has normally coloured stool including a large amount of free fatty acids. The reason for this is a disturbance of the following process:
A patient with lobar pneumonia has had body temperature of 39oC with daily temperature fluctuation of no more than 1oC for 9 days. This fever can be characterized by the following temperature curve:
A patient with jaundice has high total bilirubin that is mainly indirect (unconjugated), high concentration of stercobilin in the stool and urine. The level of direct (conjugated) bilirubin in the blood plasma is normal. What kind of jaundice can you think of?
A 35-year-old male patient has been referred by an andrologist for the genetic counselling for the deviations of physical and mental development. Objectively: the patient is tall, has asthenic constitution, gynecomastia, mental retardation. Microscopy of the oral mucosa cells revealed sex chromatin (single Barr body) in 30% of cells. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A patient with respiratory failure has blood pH of 7,35. pCO2 test revealed hypercapnia. Urine pH test revealed an increase in the urine acidity. What form of acid-base imbalance is the case?
A 38-year-old female patient complains of general weakness, cardiac pain, increased appetite, no menstruation. Objectively: the height is 166 cm, weight 108 kg, the patient has moon-shaped face, subcutaneous fat is deposited mainly in the upper body, torso and hips. There are also blood-red streaks. Ps- 62/min, AP-160/105 mm Hg. Which of the following diseases is the described pattern of obesity most typical for?
Examination of an 18-year-old girl revealed the following features: hypoplasia of the ovaries, broad shoulders, narrow pelvis, shortening of the lower extremities, \"sphinx neck\". Mental development is normal. The girl was diagnosed with Turner’s syndrome. What kind of chromosome abnormality is it?
Electrophoretic study of a blood serum sample, taken from the patient with pneumonia, revealed an increase in one of the protein fractions. Specify this fraction:
A patient with diabetes developed a diabetic coma due to the acid-base imbalance. Specify the kind of this imbalance:
Autopsy of a dead patient revealed bone marrow hyperplasia of tubular and flat bones (pyoid marrow), splenomegaly (6 kg) and hepatomegaly (5 kg), enlargement of all lymph node groups. What disease are the identified changes typical for?
A 53-year-old male patient is diagnosed with Paget’s disease. The concentration of oxyproline in daily urine is sharply increased, which primarily means intensified disintegration of:
Autopsy of the dead patient who died from pulmonary edema revealed a large yellow-grey nidus in the myocardium, and a fresh thrombus in the coronary artery. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Increased HDL levels decrease the risk of atherosclerosis. What is the mechanism of HDL anti-atherogenic action?
A boy referred to a genetics clinic was found to have 1 drumstick in blood neutrophils. The boy is likely to have the following syndrome:
A drycleaner’s worker has been found to have hepatic steatosis. This pathology can be caused by the disruption of synthesis of the following substance:
A 43-year-old-patient has arterial hypertension caused by an increase in cardiac output and general peripheral resistance. Specify the variant of hemodynamic development of arterial hypertension in the given case:
Examination of a 52-year-old female patient has revealed a decrease in the amount of red blood cells and an increase in free hemoglobin in the blood plasma (hemoglobinemia). Color index is 0,85. What type of anemia is being observed in the patient?
The processes of heat transfer in a naked person at room temperature have been studied. It was revealed that under these conditions the greatest amount of heat is transferred by:
Urine analysis has shown high levels of protein and erythrocytes in urine. This can be caused by the following:
The development of both immune and allergic reactions is based upon the same mechanisms of the immune system response to an antigen. What is the main difference between the immune and allergic reactions?
In a patient elevation of body temperature takes turns with drops down to normal levels during the day. The rise in temperature is observed periodically once in four days. Specify the type of temperature curve:
Diabetic nephropathy with uremia has developed in a patient with pancreatic diabetes. The velocity of glomerular filtration is 9 ml/min. What mechanism of a decrease in glomerular filtration velocity and chronic renal failure development is most likely in the case of this patient?
A patient complaining of pain in the left shoulder-blade region has been diagnosed with miocardial infarction. What kind of pain does the patient have?
A patient is diagnosed with hereditary coagulopathy that is characterised by factor VIII deficiency. Specify the phase of blood clotting during which coagulation will be disrupted in the given case:
A patient has a traumatic injury of sternocleidomastoid muscle. This has resulted in a decrease in the following value:
A 37-year-old female patient complains of headache, vertigo, troubled sleep, numbness of limbs. For the last 6 years she has been working at the gas-discharge lamp-producing factory in the lead-processing shop. Blood test findings: low hemoglobin and RBC level, serum iron concentration exceeds the norm by several times. Specify the type of anemia:
A patient with hereditary hyperammonemia due to a disorder of ornithine cycle has developed secondary orotaciduria. The increased synthesis of orotic acid is caused by an increase in the following metabolite of ornithine cycle:
A 49-year-old male patient with acute pancreatitis was likely to develop pancreatic necrosis, while active pancreatic proteases were absorbed into the blood stream and tissue proteins broke up. What protective factors of the body can inhibit these processes?
A patient has insufficient blood supply to the kidneys, which has caused the development of pressor effect due to the constriction of arterial resistance vessels. This is the result of the vessels being greatly affected by the following substance:
A 16-year-old female patient has fainted after quickly changing her body position from horizontal to vertical one. Which process from the ones listed below has caused the loss of consciousness in the first place?
A 53-year-old male patient complains of acute pain in the right hypochondrium. Objective examination revealed scleral icterus. Laboratory tests revealed increased ALT activity, and stercobilin was not detected in the stool. What disease is characterized by these symptoms?
Experimental stimulation of the sympathetic nerve branches that innervate the heart caused an increase in force of heart contractions because the membrane of typical cardiomyocytes permitted an increase in:
According to the results of glucose tolerance test, the patient has no disorder of carbohydrate tolerance. Despite that, glucose is detected in the patients’ urine (5 mmol/l). The patient has been diagnosed with renal diabetes. What renal changes cause glucosuria in this case?
Parents of 5-year-old child report him o have frequent colds that develop into pneumonias, presence of purulent rashes on the skin. Laboratory tests have revealed the following: absence of immunoglobulins of any type, and naked cells are absent from the lymph nodes punctate. What kind of immune disorder is it?
A 3-year-old child has continuous fever, lymph nodes are enlarged, the amount of lymphocytes in blood is significantly increased. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed antigen of Epstein-Barr virus. What diagnosis can be made based on the information given above?
A patient intending to undergo a gender reassignment surgery has been admitted to a specialised clinic. In the course of examination both male and female gonades have been revealed, with male structure of external genitals. What kind of genital maldevelopment has the patient?
In case of alkaptonuria, homogentisic acid is excreted in urine in large amounts. The development of this disease is associated with a disorder of metabolism of the following amino acid:
When studying the signs of pulmonary ventilation, reduction of forced expiratory volume has been detected. What is the likely cause of this phenomenon?
A 55-year-old patient with a characteristic rash, fever, dizziness has been admitted to a hospital. He has been provisionally diagnosed with typhus. No similar cases have been reported. In his youth (15 years old) the patient suffered typhus in a boarding school. What disease is it?
In the course of an experiment adenohypophysis of an animal has been removed. The resulting atrophy of thyroid gland and adrenal cortex has been caused by deficiency of the following hormone:
Degenerative changes in posterior and lateral columns of spinal cord (funicular myelosis) caused by methylmalonic acid accumulation occur in patients with B12-deficiency anemia. This results in synthesis disruption of the following substance:
A female patient saught medical-genetic consultation. Physical examination revealed pterygium colli deformity (webbed neck), broad chest, underdeveloped breasts. Study of buccal epithelium cells revealed no X-chromatin in the nuclei. This indicates that the patient has the following syndrome:
Examination of a 56-year-old female patient with a history of type 1 diabetes revealed a disorder of protein metabolism that is manifested by aminoacidemia in the laboratory blood test values, and clinically by the delayed wound healing and decreased synthesis of antibodies. Which of the following mechanisms causes the development of aminoacidemia?
For biochemical diagnostics of myocardial infarction it is necessary to measure activity of a number of enzymes and their isoenzymes. What enzymatic test is considered to be the best to prove or disprove the diagnosis of infarction in the early period after the chest pain is detected?
Due to the use of poor-quality measles vaccine for preventive vaccination, a 1-year-old child has developed an autoimmune renal injury. The urine was found to contain macromolecular proteins. What process of urine formation has been disturbed?
A 67-year-old male patient consumes eggs, pork fat, butter, milk and meat. Blood test results: cholesterol - 12,3 mmol/l, total lipids - 8,2 g/l, increased low-density lipoprotein fraction (LDL). What type of hyperlipoproteinemia is observed in the patient?
The resuscitation unit has admitted a patient in grave condition. It is known that he had mistakenly taken sodium fluoride which blocks cytochrome oxidase. What type of hypoxia developed in the patient?
On the fifth day after the acute blood loss a patient has been diagnosed with hypochromic anemia. What is the main mechanism of hypochromia development?
A patient has severe blood loss caused by an injury. What kind of dehydration will be observed in this particular case?
A 30-year-old patient has dyspnea fits, mostly at night. He has been diagnosed with bronchial asthma. What type of allergic reaction according to the Gell-Coombs classification is most likely in this case?
After a road accident a victim has tachycardia, arterial blood pressure 130/90 mm Hg, tachypnoe, the skin is pale and dry, excitation of central nervous system is observed. What shock stage is the patient most likely in?
A patient operated on complicated appendicitis has the following changes of blood count: erythrocytes - 4, 0 · 1012/l, Нb - 120 g/l, color index - 0,9, leukocytes - 18 · 109/l, basophils - 0, eosinophils - 0, myelocytes - 0, juvenile - 0, stab neutrophils - 20, segmentonuclear neutrophils - 53, lymphocytes - 21, monocytes - 5. How is such nuclear shift of leukocytic formula called?
A child was born with cleft palate. Examination revealed aorta defects and reduced number of T-lymphocytes in blood. What immunodeficient syndrome is it?
Examination of a patient admitted to the surgical department with symptoms of acute appendicitis revealed the following changes in the white blood cells: the total count of leukocytes is 16 · 109/l. Leukocyte formula: basophils - 0, eosinophils - 2%, juvenile forms - 2%, stabnuclear - 8%, segmentonuclear - 59%, lymphocytes - 25%, monocytes- 4%. The described changes can be classified as:
ECG of a patient shows such alterations: P -wave is normal, P − Q-interval is short, ventricular QRST complex is wide, R-wave is double-peak or two-phase. What form of arrhythmia is it?
A female patient suffering from bronchial asthma had got a viral infection that provoked status asthmaticus with fatal outcome. Histological examination of lungs revealed spasm and edema of bronchioles, apparent infiltration of their walls with lymphocytes, eosinophils and other leukocytes; labrocyte degranulation. What mechanism of hypersensitivity underlies the described alterations?
A patient was admitted to the infectious department. His symptoms: dry skin, decreased skin turgor, rice-water stool. The patient was diagnosed with cholera. What disorder of water-electrolytic balance is most often observed in this disease?
A 5 year old child is ill with measles. Blood analysis revealed increase of total number of leukocytes up to 13 · 109/l. Leukogram: basophils - 0, eosinophils - 1, myelocytes - 0, juvenile neutrophils - 0, band neutrophils - 2, segmented neutrophils - 41, lymphocytes - 28, monocytes - 28. Name this phenomenon:
A 15 year old girl has pale skin, glossitis, gingivitis. Blood count: erythrocytes - 3, 3 cot 1012/l, hemoglobin - 70 g/l, colour index - 0,5. Examination of blood smear revealed hypochromia, microcytosis, poikilocytosis. What type of anemia is it?
Dietary intake of a 30 year old nursing woman contains 1000 mg of calcium, 1300 mg of phosphorus and 20 mg of iron per day. It is necessary to change content of these mineral substances in the following way:
Lungs of a preterm infant have areas of atelectasis (pulmonary collapse). The main cause is:
Voluntary breath-holding caused increase of respiration depth and frequency. The main factor stimulating these changes of external respiration is:
A patient with skin mycosis has disorder of cellular immunity. The most typical characteristic of it is reduction of the following index:
Examination of a pregnant woman revealed twice as much concentration of fibrinogen in blood plasma. What ESR can this woman have?
Introduction of a big dose of histamine to an experimental animal caused abrupt drop of arterial pressure as a result of:
Patients who suffer from severe diabetes and don’t receive insulin have metabolic acidosis. This is caused by increased concentration of the following metabolites:
A man weighs 80 kg, after long physical activity his circulating blood volume is reduced down to 5,4 l, hematocrit makes up 50%, whole blood protein is 80 g/l. These blood characteristics are determined first of all by:
A couple had a child with Down’s disease. Mother is 42 years old. This disease is most probably caused by the following impairment of prenatal development:
A patient suffering from pheochromocytoma complains of thirst, dry mouth, hunger. Blood test for sugar revealed hyperglycemia. What type of hyperglycemia is it?
A patient was stung by a bee. Examination revealed that his left hand was hot, pink, edematic, there was a big red blister on the site of sting. What is the leading mechanism of edema development?
During hypersensitivity test a patient got subcutaneous injection of an antigen which caused reddening of skin, edema, pain as a result of histamine action. This biogenic amine is generated as a result of transformation of the following histidine amino acid:
Hepatitis has led to the development of hepatic failure. Mechanism of edemata formation is activated by the impairment of the following liver function:
Two hours after an exam a student had a blood count done and it was revealed that he had leukocytosis without significant leukogram modifications. What is the most probable mechanism of leukocytosis development?
Examination of a man who had been working hard under higher temperature of the environment revealed abnormal quantity of blood plasma proteins. What phenomenon is the case?
A patient has a decreased vasopressin synthesis that causes polyuria and as a result of it evident organism dehydration. What is the mechanism of polyuria development?
A 30 year old woman has face edemata. Examination revealed proteinuria (5,87 g/l), hypoproteinemia, dysproteinemia, hyperlipidemia. What condition is the set of these symptoms typical for?
A 42 year old woman with neuralgia of trifacial nerve complains about periodical reddening of the right part of her face and neck, sense of warmth gush, increased skin sensitivity. These effects can be explained by the following type of arterial hyperemia:
Inflammatory processes cause synthesis of protein of acute phase in an organism. What substances stimulate their synthesis?
A 25 year old Palestinian woman complains of weakness, dizziness, dyspnea. In anamnesis: periodically exacerbating anemia. In blood: Hb - 60 g/l, erythrocytes - 2, 5 · 1012/l, reticulocytes - 35o/oo, anisocytosis and poikilocytosis of erythrocytes, a lot of target cells and polychromatophils. What type of anemia is it?
A 17 year old boy fell seriously ill, the body temperature rose up to 38, 5oC , there appeared cough, rhinitis, lacrimation, nasal discharges. What inflammation is it?
48 hours after tuberculine test (Mantoux test) a child had a papule 10 mm in diameter on the spot of tuberculine injection. What hypersensitivity mechanism underlies these changes?
ECG of a patient shows prolongation of T-wave. This is caused by deceleration in ventricles of:
A patient who has been abusing tobacco smoking for a long time has got cough accompanied by excretion of viscous mucus; weakness after minor physical stress, pale skin. The patient has also lost 12,0 kg of body weight. Endoscopic examination of biopsy material his illness was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. Name a pathological process that preceded formation of the tumour:
A 46 year old woman suffering from chololithiasis developed jaundice. Her urine became dark-yellow and feces became colourless. Blood serum will have the highest concentration of the following substance:
A full-term newborn child has yellowish skin and mucous membranes. This might be probably caused by temporary deficiency of the following enzyme:
A 12-year-old patient was found to have blood serum cholesterol at the rate of 25 mmol/l. The boy has a history of hereditary familial hypercholesterolemia, which is caused by the impaired synthesis of the following protein receptors:
A patient underwent a course of treatment for atherosclerosis. Laboratory tests revealed an increase in the anti-atherogenic lipoprotein fraction in the blood plasma. The treatment efficacy is confirmed by the increase in:
A patient complains that at the bare mention of the tragic events that once occurred in his life he experiences tachycardia, dyspnea and an abrupt rise in blood pressure. What structures of the CNS are responsible for these cardiorespiratory reactions in this patient?
As a result of a home injury, a patient suffered a significant blood loss, which led to a fall in blood pressure. Rapid blood pressure recovery after the blood loss is provided by the following hormones:
On allergological examination a patient has been diagnosed with pollinosis. Specific desensitization can be performed by:
Due to the blockage of the common bile duct (which was radiographically confirmed), the biliary flow to the duodenum was stopped. We should expect the impairment of:
A 22-year-old woman ate some seafood. 5 hours later the trunk and the distal parts of limbs got covered with small itchy papules which were partially fused together. After one day, the rash disappeared spontaneously. Specify the hypersensitivity mechanism underlying these changes:
10 days after having quinsy caused by beta-hemolytic streptococcus a 6-year-old child exhibited symptoms of glomerulonephritis. What mechanism of glomerular lesion is most likely in this case?
What condition may develop 15-30 minutes after re-administration of the antigen as a result of the increased level of antibodies, mainly IgE, that are adsorbed on the surface of target cells, namely tissue basophils (mast cells) and blood basophils?
A child cut his leg with a piece of glass while playing and was brought to the clinic for the injection of tetanus toxoid. In order to prevent the development of anaphylactic shock the serum was administered by Bezredka method. What mechanism underlies this method of desensitization of the body?
6 hours after the myocardial infarction a patient was found to have elevated level of lactate dehydrogenase in blood. What isoenzyme should be expected in this case?
ECG of a patient displays an abnormally long R wave (up to 0,18s). This is caused by a decrease in the conduction velocity of the following heart structures:
Analysis of the ECG revealed the missing of several PQRST cycles. The remaining waves and complexes are not changed. Specify the type of arrhythmia:
A 19-year-old male was found to have an elevated level of potassium in the secondary urine. These changes might have been caused by the increase in the following hormone level:
Diseases of the respiratory system and circulatory disorders impair the transport of oxygen, thus leading to hypoxia. Under these conditions the energy metabolism is carried out by anaerobic glycolysis. As a result, the following substance is generated and accumulated in blood:
During the intravenous transfusion of the saline the patient’s condition deteriorated dramatically, and the patient died from asphyxiation. Autopsy revealed acute venous congestion of internal organs with the dramatic right heart dilatation. When the right ventricle was punctured underwater, the bubbles escaped. What pathological process occurred in the patient?
Inherited diseases, such as mucopolysaccharidoses, are manifested in metabolic disorders of connective tissue, bone and joint pathologies. The sign of this disease is the excessive urinary excretion of the following substance:
Enzymatic jaundices are accompanied by abnormal activity of UDP-glucuronyl transferase. What compound is accumulated in blood serum in case of these pathologies?
A patient got a gunshot wound of hip which damaged the sciatic nerve. Any impact on the affected limb causes severe, excruciating pain. What mechanism of pain is most likely in this case?
A 3-year-old boy with pronounced hemorrhagic syndrome doesn’t have anti-hemophilic globulin A (factor VIII) in the blood plasma. Hemostasis has been impaired at the following stage:
The cellular composition of exudate largely depends on the etiological factor of inflammation. What leukocytes are the first to get into the focus of inflammation caused by pyogenic bacteria?