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Question 1 of 177

1.

Administration of doxycycline hydrochloride caused an imbalance of the symbiotic intestinal microflora. Specify the kind of imbalance caused by the antibiotic therapy:

2.

A patient with signs of emotional lability that result in troubled sleep has been prescribed nitrazepam. Specify the sleep-inducing mechanism of this drug:

3. A patient has arterial hypertension. What long-acting drug from the group of calcium channel blockers should be prescribed?
4. In cancer patients who have been continuously receiving methotrexate, the target cells of tumor with time become insensitive to this drug. In this case, gene amplification of the following enzyme is observed:

5.

A 30-year-old patient with a past history of virus B hepatitis complains of prolonged nosebleeds. What drug will be most efficient in remedying this condition?

6. A 63-year-old male patient with bladder atony had been prescribed a medication, which he had been arbitrarily taking at a higher dose. The patient developed hyperhydration, salivation, diarrhea, muscle spasms. The prescribed drug relates to the following group:
7.

A 47-year-old male patient developed intestinal colic against the background of essential hypertension. In this situation it would be most efficient to arrest the colic by using drugs of the following group:

8. A patient complains of photoreception disorder and frequent acute viral diseases. He has been prescribed a vitamin that affects photoreception processes by producing rhodopsin, the photosensitive pigment. What vitamin is it?
9. A patient with acne has been prescribed doxycycline hydrochloride. What recommendations should be given to the patient, while he is taking this drug?
10. A 26-year-old female patient with bronchitis has been administered a broad spectrum antibiotic as a causal treatment drug. Specify this drug:
11. Symptoms of pellagra (vitamin PP deficiency) is particularly pronounced in patients with low protein diet, because nicotinamide precursor in humans is one of the essential amino acids, namely:
12. A 68-year-old patient consults a cardiologist, complaining of high arterial blood pressure, pain in the heart region, intermittent pulse. Prescribe the β1-adrenoreceptor blocker for the treatment of the described pathology:
13.

A patient is diagnosed with acute morphine hydrochloride intoxication. Prescribe an oxidizing agent for gastric lavage:

14.

A 35-year-old female patient has been hospitalised with acute intoxication caused by salts of high-density metals (lead, most probably). As a part of complex therapy the antidote that contains two active sulfhydric groups has been prescribed. Specify this antidote:

15.

A 60-year-old male patient has type II diabetes. A doctor has prescribed him synthetic hypoglycemic long-acting drug that is sulfonylurea derivative. What drug is it?

16.

A patient has been given atropine sulfate for rapid relief of spastic colon symptoms. The use of this drug is contraindicated during the following disease:

17.

A patient who had been taking diclofenac sodium for arthritis of mandibular joint developed an acute condition of gastric ulcer. Such side effect of this medicine is caused by inhibition of the following enzyme:

18.

A 55-year-old male had been delivered to the resuscitation unit unconscious. Relatives reported him to have mistakenly drunk an alcoholic solution of unknown origin. On examination the patient was diagnosed with methanol intoxication. What antidote should be used in this case?

19.

An   8-week-pregnant   woman with acute respiratory disease and temperature rise up to 39, 0oC has called in a doctor. The doctor insisted on her avoiding taking paracetamol, because in this period of pregnancy there is a risk of its:

20. A pneumonia patient has been administered acetylcysteine as a part of complex therapy. What principle of therapy has been taken into consideration when applying this drug?
21. A patient with chronic heart failure with edema has increased level of blood aldosterone. What diuretic would be most effective in this case?
22. What drug will be most appropriate for the patient who has chronic gastritis with increased secretion?
23.

A child was born asphyxiated. What drug must be administered to the newborn to stimulate breathing?

24.

A patient complaining of rapid pulse, dyspnea and bluish color of mucosa has been admitted to the cardiological department. The objective symptoms are as follows: edema of lower extremities, ascites. Which of the given medicines should be prescribed for intravenous administration to improve the patient’s general state?

25.

A patient takes cholagogues. What other process besides biliary excretion will be stimulated?

26. A patient with homogentisuria has signs of arthritis, ochronosis. In this case, the pain in the joints is associated with the deposition of:
27. A child patient has dry cough. What non-narcotic antitussive drug will relieve the patient’s condition?
28.

An patient with insomnia induced by allergic rash and itch has been prescribed the drug that has antihistamine and hypnotic effect. Specify this drug:

29.

During local anesthetization the patient has gone into anaphylactic shock. What drug must be administered to the patient?

30.

Ascarid eggs have been detected during stool analysis. What drug should be prescribed?

31.

 A patient with continuous bronchopneumonia was admitted to the therapeutic department. Antibiotic therapy didn’t give much effect. What medication for improvement of immune state should be added to the complex treatment of this patient?

32.

To anaesthetize the surgical treatment of burn surface, a patient was intravenously injected a medication for short-acting narcosis. 1 minute later the patient being under anesthesia showed increased blood pressure, tachycardia, increased tone of skeletal muscles; reflexes remained. After recovering from anesthesia the patient had disorientation and visual hallucinations. What medication was the patient injected?

33.

A 45-year-old woman suffers from seasonal allergic rhinitis caused by the ambrosia blossoming. What medicine from the stabilizer of the adipose cells group can be used for prevention of this disease?

34. Analeptical remedy of reflective type from the H-cholinomimetics group was given to the patient for restoration of breathing after poisoning with carbon monoxide. What medicine was prescribed to the patient?
35.

A 36 y.o. man has a craniocerebral trauma. Objectively: diminished breath sounds, thready pulse, no reflexes. What way of pyracetam introduction will be the most appropriate in this case?

36.

A patient suffers from severe postoperative pseudomonadous infection. What of the following antibiotics should be administered in this case?

37.

A patient ill with collagenesis has been taking prednisolone for a long time. Hypokaliemia development caused spastic pain of skeletal muscles. What medication should be used in order to correct potassium exchange?

38. A 60-year-old patient was admitted to the surgical department because of infection caused by blue pus bacillus (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) which is sensitive to penicillin antibiotics. Indicate which of the given penicillins has marked activity to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa?
39. A patient with II stage hypertension has been taking one of hypotensive medications for the purpose of treatment. After a time arterial pressure decreased, but the patient started complaining of flaccidity, sleepiness, indifference. A bit later he felt stomach pain. He was diagnosed with ulcer. What hypotensive medication has the patient been taking?
40. A patient with acute  morphine poisoning  was delivered to a hospital.  What specific narcotic  antagonist should be chosen in this case?
41. A   7   year   old   child   is   ill   with bronchitis.   It  is necessary  to  administer him   an   antibacterial  drug.   What   drug of fluoroquinolone group is CONTRA- INDICATED at this age?
42. A patient with frequent attacks  of stenocardia  was  prescribed  sustak-forte to be taken  one tablet  twice a day. At first the effect was positive  but on the second day  stenocardia attacks   resumed.  What can explain  inefficiency of the prescribed drug?
43. A  45-year-old  patient suffers  from neurosis characterized by irritability, sleeplessness,   motiveless   anxiety.   What drug would eliminate all the symptoms?
44. A patient who has been taking a drug for  a long  time  cannot  abruptly stop  its use, because  this may lead to psychic and somatic dysfunctions. Name the syndrome of different disorders caused by a drug withdrawal:
45. Before   tooth   extraction  a  patient was  advised  to  take  a  certain   drug  for hemorrhage prevention. What drug was advised?
46.

In clinical practice  tuberculosis is treated with  izoniazid  preparation - that is an  antivitamin able  to  penetrate into the  tuberculosis bacillus.  Tuberculostatic effect  is induced  by the  interference with replication processes  and oxidation-reduction reactions due to the buildup  of pseudo-coenzyme:

 
47. A patient suffering from chronic bronchitis    takes   a   synthetic   mucolytic drug that  facilitates  the  sputum  thinning. What drug is it?
48. A  student  came   to  see  a  doctor and  asked  to  administer him  a drug  for treatment of allergic rhinitis that occurs in the period  of linden flowering. What drug may be used?
49. A patient with drug intoxication presented with the dryness of oral mucous membrane  and   mydriatic   pupils.   Such action  of this drug  is associated  with the following effect:
50. An   elderly   female   patient  suffers from the type 2 diabetes mellitus accompanied by  obesity,  atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease. Basal hyperinsulinemia  is  also  present.  What treatment would be the most appropriate?
51.

A patient suffering from coronary artery disease had taken a certain drug many times a day in order to arrest   stenocardia  attacks. Overdose of this drug finally caused intoxication. Objectively: cyanotic skin and mucous membranes, dramatic fall in the  arterial pressure, tachycardia, respiration inhibition. Blood  has increased concentration of methemoglobin. The drug the patient had taken  relates to the following group:

52. Continuous use of a certain  drug may cause  osteoporosis, erosions  of  stomach mucosa,  hypokaliemia, retention of sodium and water  in the organism,  decreased concentration of  corticotropin  in  blood. What drug is it?
53.

To  prevent  the  transplant  rejection after   organ   transplantation  it  is  required   to  administer  hormonotherapy  for the purpose of immunosuppression. What hormones are used for this purpose?

54. A patient with hip fracture was prescribed  a  narcotic   analgetic.   Its anesthetic action is determined by interaction with the following receptors:
55. A patient who had myocardial infarction was administered 75 mg of acetylsalicinic acid a day. What is the purpose of this administration?
56.

A  patient has  herpetic rash.  What medication should be administered?

57. A 50 year old man who was referred to  the  hospital  for  treatment of cervical lymphadenitis underwent test  for individual  sensitivity  to  penicillin.  30 seconds after  he  went  hot  all over,  AP  dropped down  to  0  mm  Hg  that  led  to  cardiac arrest.  Resuscitation was unsuccessful. Autopsy  results:  acute   venous   plethora of internal organs; histological  examination of skin (from the site of injection) revealed  degranulation of mast  cells (tissue  basophils). Degranulation  was  also revealed  in myocardium and lungs. What type of hypersensitivity reaction is it?
58. A patient with chronic cardiac insufficiency  has  been  taking   foxglove  (Digitalis)  preparations for  a  long  time.  Due to  the  violation   of  intake   schedule   the woman   got   symptoms   of   intoxication.  These symptoms result from:
59. Burned skin surface  was treated with a certain preparation. Its antiseptic properties are provided  by atomic oxygen that is formed  in presence of organic substances.  What  preparation was applied?r
60. An  alcoholic  woman  has born  a girl with mental  and  physical  developmental lag. Doctors diagnosed the girl with fetal alcohol syndrome. What effect is the cause of the girl’s state?
61.

A patient in a transplantation centre underwent heart  transplantation. The organ  was  taken  from  a  donor  who  died in a road  accident.  Foreign  heart  can be  rejected as  a  result  of  development of transplantation immunity.  It is usually prevented by means of:

62.

A  patient suffers  from  chronic  left-ventricular insufficiency. What medication should be administered?

63. A patient complained about  muscle rigidity, constrained motions, constant tremor of arms. On the grounds of examination his disease was diagnosed  as Parkinson’s disease. What drug should be administered?
64.

A woman  was delivered to a hospital for trachea intubation. What of the following drugs  should  be applied  in this case?

65. An unconscious  young man with signs of  morphine poisoning  entered admission  office. His  respiration is shallow  and infrequent which  is caused  by inhibition of respiratory centre.  What  type of respiratory failure is it?
66. A patient in postoperative period  was prescribed an anticholinesterase drug for stimulation of intestinal peristalsis  and tonus of urinary bladder. What drug is it?
67. A patient suffering from initial hypertension has been taking an anti-hypertensive preparation  for  a  long  time. Suddenly  he stopped taking this preparation.   After    this   his   condition grew  worse,  this  led  to  development of hypertensive crisis. This by-effect  can be classified as:
68. A    65   year    old    female    patient suffers from chronic renal insufficiency accompanied by evident  edemata caused by chronic  glomerulonephritis. What  diuretic  should  be administered for forced diuresis?
69. A   patient  suffering   from   chronic cardiac   insufficiency  was  recommended to undergo a prophylactic course  of treatment with a cardiological  drug  from the  group   of  cardiac   glycosides  that   is to be taken  enterally. What drug was recommended?
70. A  19  year  old  woman  suffers  from primary    syphilis.   Doctor   administered her complex therapy that includes benzylpenicillin sodium  salt. What  is the mechanism  of action of this drug?
71.

A patient suffers from  diabetes melitus. After the regular insulin injection his condition grew worse:  there appeared anxiety, cold sweat, tremor of limbs, general weakness, dizziness. What preparation can eliminate these symptoms?

72.

A  4 year  old  child  was  admitted to the orthopaedic department with shin fracture together with displacement. Bone fragments reposition requires preliminary analgesia. What preparation should be chosen?

73. A   patient  suffering   from   infectious mononucleosis has been taking glucocorticosteroids for  two  weeks.  This  resulted in remission  but  the  patient got exacerbation of chronic tonsillitis. This complication is induced  by the  following effect of glucocorticosteroids:
74.

A patient ill with neurodermatitis has been  taking prednisolone for a long time. Examination revealed  high rate  of sugar in his blood.  This complication is caused by the drug influence  upon  the  following link of carbohydrate metabolism:

 
75. A healthy  man is in a region  with high risk of catching malaria. What drug should be administered for individual chemoprophylaxis of malaria?
76.

A  patient who  suffers  from  insomnia caused by emotional disorder was prescribed a hypnotic drug with tranquillizing effect. What hypnotic  was prescribed?

 
77. A woman works as railway traffic controller. She suffers from seasonal vasomotor rhinitis  and  gets  treatment in the outpatient setting. She was prescribed an antihistamine that  has no effect  upon central  nervous  system. What drug is it?
78. An  unconscious   patient  was  delivered   to  the   admission   ward.   Objectively: the  patient’s skin is cold, pupils are myotic,  he  has  laboured Cheyne-Stokes respiration, arterial pressure is low,  urinary  bladder is full. What  substance  has caused intoxication?
79. In  order  to  accelerate healing  of  a radiation ulcer  a vitamin  drug was administered. What drug is it?
80. A  patient who  has  been  treated  in a  neural   clinic  and  has  been   taking   a sedative  for  a long  time  got  the  following complication: cough, rhinitis, epiphora. What drug caused these disturbances?
81. An alcoholic  has alcoholic  psychosis with evident psychomotor agitation. What neuroleptic drug  should  be administered  for emergency  care?
82.

Study of conversion  of a food colouring agent  revealed  that  neutralization of this  xenobiotic   takes  place  only  in  one phase  - microsomal   oxidation.   Name  a component of this phase:

83. A  patient with  myocardial  infarction was admitted to the cardiological department. For  pain  relief  it  was  decided   to   potentiate  fentanyl   action   with  a  neuroleptic.  Which  of  the  following  neuroleptics is the  most  suitable  for neuroleptanalgesia?
84. A doctor  prescribed a cephalosporin antibiotic to the patient after appendectomy for  infection   prevention.  Antimicrobial activity of this group of antibiotics  is based upon   the   disturbance  of  the   following process:
85.

A  female  patient was administered loratadine for allergic cheilitis treatment. What is the mechanism  of the drug’s action?

 
86. During     anesthetization   a    patient presented with symptoms of tonus increase  of  parasympathetic nervous system such as hypersalivation and laryngospasm. What drug could have prevented these undesirable effects?
87.

A female  patient consulted  a doctor about a sense of epigastric discomfort, nausea  and anorexia. A duodenal content analysis revealed lamblia.   What   drug should be prescribed?

88.

A  patient takes  digoxin  for  cardiac insufficiency.  What  diuretic  may increase digoxin toxicity due to the intensified excretion of K + ions?

89.

A   patient  with   coronary    disease and  arrhythmia has been  administered a drug that blocks potassium channels and prolongs  the  action  potential. What  drug is it?

90.

If a man  has  an  attack  of bronchiospasm it is necessary to reduce  the effect of vagus  on  smooth  muscles  of bronchi. What  membrane cytoreceptors should  be blocked for this purpose?

91.

During surgical manipulations a patient has been given novocaine  injection for anesthesia. 10 minutes  later  the  patient developed paleness,  dyspnea,  hypotension. What type of allergic reaction is it?

92. A female  patient consulted  a doctor about   pain   and   limited   movements  in the   knee   joints.  Which  of  the  following nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs should  be administered taking into consideration that  the  patient has a history  of chronic gastroduodenitis?
93. A patient with acute myocardial infarction has been administered heparin as   a   part   of   complex   therapy.  Some time   after   heparin  injection   the   patient  developed hematuria. What  heparin antagonist should  be injected  in order  to manage the complication?
94.

A  liquidator of  a  breakdown  at  a nuclear  power  plant  who  was irradiated complained about  vomiting that occurs all of a sudden.  What  medication should  be prescribed?

95. A  17-year-old  girl  took  a  high  dose of   phenobarbital   to   commit    a   suicide. An ambulance doctor  cleansed her stomach and gave her an intravenous injection of bemegride and sodium hydrocarbonate solution.  What  was sodium hydrocarbonate injected for?
96.

Examination  of  a  70-year-old   patient  revealed  insulin-dependent diabetes. What drug should be administered?

97. This drug  has  a destructive effect  on erythrocytic forms  of malarial  plasmodia and  dysenteric amoebae.  It  is  used  for treatment and prevention of such diseases as malaria,  amebiasis  and  interstitial disease. What drug is it?
98.

Which of the listed diuretic agents WILL NOT have diuretic  effect on a patient with Addison’s disease?

99. A patient with cardiogenic  shock, hypotension, asphyxia  and  edemata was given an injection  of non-glycosidic cardiotonic. What drug was injected?
100. A  patient with  essential  hypertension  has  a high  rate  of blood  renin.  Which of antihypertensive drugs should be preferred?
101.

A 65-year-old  female patient has chronic constipations due to the colon hypotonia. What  drug  should  be  chosen in this case?

102. A patient with bacterial periodontitis has  been  administered iontophoresis with the  use of iodine  solution.  Specify the mechanism  of  therapeutic action  of  this agent:
103.

 A patient who had been continuously taking  drugs  blocking  the  production of angiotensin II developed bradycardia and arrhythmia. A likely cause of these disorders is:

104.

A patient with arthritis and varicose veins has been taking a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for a long time, which caused  thrombosis of  skin  veins.  Which of the following drugs might have caused this complication?

105.

A  patient has  recurrent attacks   of epileptic seizures and stays unconscious between them.  In order  to stop  convulsions   the   drugs   of  the   following   group should be used in the first place:

106.

A  26-year-old  woman  at  40 weeks pregnant has been  delivered  to the maternity ward.  Objectively:  the  uterine cervix is opened, but the contractions are absent.  The  doctor  has administered her a hormonal drug  to  stimulate the  labor. Name this drug:

 
107.

A hypertensive patient had been keeping to a salt-free diet and taking  antihypertensive drugs  together with hydrochlorothiazide for a long time. This resulted in  electrolyte imbalance. What disorder  of the internal environment occurred in the patient?

108.

A 12-year-old child has a viral infection  complicated  by  obstructive  bronchitis. Bronchospasm can  be  eliminated by inhalations of a drug  from  the  following pharmacological group:

109.

A 50-year-old  patient with food poisoning is on a drip of 10% glucose solution. It not only provides the body with necessary  energy,  but  also  performs the function of detoxification by the production of a metabolite that participates in the following conjugation reaction:

110.

A patient has been  administered an anti-inflammatory drug that blocks the action of cyclooxygenase.   Specify this anti-inflammatory agent:

111.

A  46-year-old   female  is  scheduled for  a  maxillofacial   surgery.  It  is  known that  the  patient is prone  to  high  blood coagulation. What  natural anticoagulant can be used to prevent blood clotting?

112.

Infectious diseases  are  treated  with antibiotics  (streptomycin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol). They inhibit the following stage of protein synthesis:

113. A  66-year-old   patient  with  Parkinson’s disease  shows an improvement in locomotor  activity   after   prolonged  use of  a  certain  drug  which  is converted to dopamine by the  decarboxylation. What drug has the patient taken?

114. A patient with urolithiasis has unbearable  spasmodic   pain.  To  prevent pain shock, he has been given an injection of atropine along with a narcotic analgesic having  antispasmodic  effect.  What  drug was it?
115.

Despite the  administration of  cardiotonics   and  a  thiazide   diuretic   a  patient  with  chronic  heart  failure  has  persistent  edemata, there  is a risk  of ascites. What  medication should  be administered in order  to enhance the diuretic  effect of the drugs used?

116. In order to stimulate breathing in a child born with asphyxia, the doctor gave him a drug  injection  into  the  umbilical  vein. What drug might have been injected?
117.

To prevent attacks  of acute  pancreatitis a doctor  prescribed the patient trasylol (contrycal, gordox),  which is an inhibitor of:

118.

It   is  known   that individuals with genetically  caused  deficiency  of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase may develop RBC hemolysis in response to the administration of some antimalarial drugs. Manifestation  of adverse  reactions to drugs  is called:

 
119.

Curariform substances  introduced into  a  human   body  cause  the  relaxation of all skeletal  muscles.  What  changes in the  neuromuscular synapse  cause  this phenomenon?

120.

A comatose  patient was taken  to the hospital. He has a history of diabetes mellitus.Objectively:   Kussmaul  breathing, low blood  pressure, acetone odor  of breath.  After   the  emergency   treatment the  patient’s   condition  improved.   What drug  had  been  administered to the  patient?

121.

A   patient  with   biliary   dyskinesia and  constipations has  been  prescribed a cholagogue having  also a laxative  effect. What drug has been administered?

122. A 50-year-old  patient has been  administered laevomycetin for the treatment of typhoid fever, but on the next day the patient’s condition worsened, the temperature rose  to 39, 60C . The  deterioration of the patient’s condition can be explained  by:
123.

During  a surgery with the use of hygronium the patient had an abrupt fall in blood  pressure. Blood  pressure can be normalized by the  representatives of the following drug group:

124.

A  patient with a dislocated shoulder had  been  admitted  to  a  hospital.   With the  purpose of  skeletal muscle  relaxation he was given an injection  of relaxant dithylinum acting  normally  5-7 minutes. However, the  effect  of dithylinum  in this patient lasted  up to 8 hours.  What  is the most  likely cause of the prolonged effect of dithylinum in this patient?

125.

A   40-year-old    female   patient  diagnosed  with acute  pancreatitis has been delivered to the admission  department of a regional  hospital.  What  drug should  be administered the patient in the first place?

126.

A   female    patient  with   bronchial asthma  had taken  prednisolone tablets  (1 tablet  3 times a day) for 2 months.  Due to a significant improvement of her condition the patient suddenly  stopped taking it. What  complication is likely to develop  in this case?

 
127. A girl receives antibiotics of the penicillin group for acute bronchitis.  On the third day of treatment she developed allergic dermatitis. Which drug should be administered?
128. Some infectious diseases caused by bacteria are treated with sulfanilamides which  block the synthesis of bacteria growth factor. What is the mechanism of their action?
129.

A   42-year-old    male   patient  with gout has an increased blood uric acid concentration. In order to reduce the level of uric acid the  doctor  administered him allopurinol. Allopurinol is the  competitive inhibitor of the following enzyme:

130.

A 60-year-old  patient with a long history of stenocardia takes coronarodilator agents. He has also been administered acetylsalicylic acid to reduce platelet aggregation. What is the mechanism of antiplatelet action of acetylsalicylic acid?

131.

Pterin derivatives (aminopterin and methotrexate) are the inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase, so that they inhibit the regeneration of  tetrahydrofolic acid from dihydrofolate. These drugs inhibit the intermolecular transfer of monocarbon groups, thus suppressing the synthesis of the following polymer:

132.

A 60-year-old male patient has a 9-year history of diabetes and takes insulin Semilente for the correction of hyperglycemia.10 days ago he began  taking   anaprilin for hypertension.One  hour after administration of the  antihypertensive drug  the patient  developed  hypoglycemic coma. What  is the  mechanism  of hypoglycemia in the case of anaprilin use?

133.

A patient diagnosed  with focal tuberculosis of the upper  lobe of the right lung had  been  taking  isoniazid  as a part of combination therapy. After  some time, the patient reported of muscle weakness, decreased  skin  sensitivity,   blurred  vision,  impaired  motor   coordination.  Which vitamin  preparation should  be used to address  these phenomena?

134. The  secretion  of  which  hypophysial hormones will be  inhibited after  taking the  oral contraceptives containing sex hormones?
135.

A patient has been  given high doses of hydrocortisone for a long time. This caused   atrophy  of  one   of  the   adrenal cortex zones. Which zone is it?

136. A  doctor  recommends a  patient with  duodenal ulcer  to  drink  cabbage  and potato  juice   after   the   therapy  course. Which substances  contained in these vegetables  help  to  heal  and  prevent the ulcers?
137.

A  patient suffering  from  myasthenia has been  administered proserin. After  its administration the patient has got nausea, diarrhea, twitch  of  tongue   and  skeletal muscles. What  drug  would  help to eliminate the intoxication?

138. Proserin increases skeletal muscle tone when given systematically. Halothane induces   relaxation  of  skeletal   muscles and   reduces   proserin  effects.   What   is the nature of proserin and halothane interaction?
139. A patient suffering from stomach ulcer has  been   treated with  an  antacid   drug almagel. For acute bronchitis treatment he was prescribed the  antibiotic methacycline.   However    within   next   5  days   the fever   didn’t   fall,   cough    and    sputum nature  remained unchanged. A  physician came to the  conclusion  that  the  drugs were incompatible. What type of drug incompatibility is the case?
140. A   30-year-old   patient  complains about   having   abdominal  pain   and   diarrhea for  five  days;  body  temperature rise  up  to  37, 5oC  along  with  chills. The day   before   a   patient  had   been   in   a forest and drunk from an open water reservoir.  Laboratory  analyses   enabled to make the following diagnosis: amebic dysentery. What  is the  drug of choice  for its treatment?
141.

Pharmacological effects of anti- depressants are based upon blocking (inhibiting)  the   enzyme   that   acts  as  a catalyst for the breakdown of biogenic amines noradrenalin and serotonin in the mitochondria of cephalic  neurons. What enzyme takes part in this process?

142. A patient with diabetes mellitus complicated by angiopathy has been recommended a drug which is a sulphonyl urease   derivate of  the  second  generation. It improves microcirculation and is known for its relatively good tolerance. What drug is it?
143. A  patient  presents with  dysfunction of cerebral cortex accompanied by epileptic  seizures.  He  has  been  administered  a biogenic amine  synthesized from glutamate and responsible for central inhibition.  What substance  is it?
144.

For  relief  of  hypertensive  crisis  a doctor   administered  a   patient  a   drug that   apart   from  antihypertensive  effect has also sedative, spasmolytic and anti-convulsive effect. The drug was taken parenterally. When  it  is  taken   enterally it acts as a laxative and cholagogue.  What drug was administered?

145. A man was intoxicated with mushrooms. They contain  muscarine  that stimulates muscarinic cholinoreceptors. What symptoms  signalize intoxication with inedible mushrooms?
146. A patient with ischemic heart disease has   been   administered  an   anti-anginal drug that  reduces  the myocardial  oxygen consumption and  improves  blood  supply of myocardium. What drug is it?
147.

A  patient has  been  diagnosed  with transmural  myocardial   infarction.   What drug should  be given in order  to prevent cardiogenic  shock?

148.

A patient suffers from pulmonary tuberculosis. During  treatment neuritis  of visual nerve  arose. What  drug has caused this by-effect?

149. A patient suffering from stenocardia was  taking  nitroglycerine which  caused restoration of blood  supply  of myocardium and relieved  pain in the cardiac  area. What intracellular mechanism  provides restoration of  energy  supply  of  insulted cells?
150. A patient consulted  a dentist  about itching and burning in the oral cavity; high temperature. The  patient was diagnosed with trichomonal gingivostomatitis. What drug should be chosen for his treatment?
151. A patient underwent appendectomy. In the  postoperative period  he has been taking an antibiotic.  The patient complains  about  hearing  impairment and  vestibular disorders.  What group of antibiotics has such by-effects?
152.

A 64 year old woman has impairment of twilight vision (hemeralopy). What  vitamin should be recommended in the first place?

153. A 66 year old female patient got intravenous injection of magnesium sulfate solution for the purpose of elimination of hypertensive crisis. But arterial  pressure didn’t go down and after repeated introduction of  the  same preparation there  appeared sluggishness, slow response, inhibition  of consciousness and respiration. What preparation is antagonist of magnesium sulfate and can eliminate symptoms of its overdose?
154. A  patient suffers  from  stenocardia and takes isosorbide  mononitrate. He was prescribed a complementary drug with disaggregating  effect. What drug is it?
155.

A  man  got  poisoned  with mushrooms. They contain  muscarine  that stimulates muscarinic cholinoreceptors. What  symptom   is  typical  for  poisoning with inedible mushrooms?

156.

As a result of durative antibiotic therapy a 37 year  old patient developed intestinal  dysbacteriosis.  What   type   of drugs should be used in order  to normalize intestinal microflora?

157. A patient diagnosed  with morphinism has been  admitted to the narcological department. A  doctor  noted  a  decrease in  pharmacological  activity   of  morphine.  Repetitive use  of  a  drug  may  result in tolerance to its effect, and this phenomenon is called:
158. A patient with epilepsy and depressive reaction has been  administered a drug that  reduced epilepsy  manifestations and improved  the patient’s psychic condition.
159.

An elderly patient has chronic constipations induced by large intestine hypotonia. What  drug  should  be administered?

160.

After  4 months  of treatment for tuberculosis the patient began complaining of toes and fingers numbness, sensation of creeps. He was diagnosed with polyneuritis.  What  antituberculous drug might have caused these complications?

161. After  the  second  abortion a 23 year old   woman   has   been   diagnosed    with  toxoplasmosis. Which drug should be used for toxoplasmosis treatment?
162.

While  under  barbituric anaesthesia a 65 year old male patient developed respiratory  inhibition.  Anesthesiologist made him a 10 ml intravenous injection  of 0,5% bemegride solution.  The  patient’s  condition  got  better, the  pulmonary ventilation volume  increased.  What  phenomenon underlies the  interaction of  these  medications?

163. A child suffers from drug idiosyncrasy. What is the cause of such reaction?
164. To prevent postoperative bleeding a 6-year-old child was administered vicasol that  is a synthetic  analogue  of vitamin K . Name post-translational changes of blood coagulation factors  that  will be activated by vicasol:
165.

A patient has a slowly healing fracture. What  medicine  can be used to accelerate formation of connective tissue matrix?

 
166.

A nurse  accidentally  injected  a nearly double dose of insulin to a patient with diabetes  mellitus. The patient lapsed  into a hypoglycemic coma. What drug should be injected in order to help him out of coma?

167.

A   patient has myocardial   infarction  with  thrombosis of  the  left  coronary artery. What pharmacological preparation group should be used to reestablish blood flow?

168.

A 20 year old patient complains of morbid thirst and hyperdiuresis (up to 10 l daily). Glucose concentration in blood is normal but it is absent in urine. The patient has been diagnosed with diabetes insipidus.  What hormonal drug is the most appropriate for management of this disorder?

169. A  65 year  old  patient with  chronic heart  failure  has been  taking  digitoxin  in self-administered dosages  for  a  long  time. She was admitted to the hospital for general health aggravation, arrhythmia, nausea,  reduced diuresis, insomnia.  What is the primary action to be taken?
170.

A patient suffering from syphilis has been  treated with  bismuth  preparations. As  a result  of it some  grey spots  turned up on the  mucous  membrane of the  oral cavity; nephropathy symptoms  were  also present. What drug should  be  used  for treatment of bismuth intoxication?

171. A patient suffering from chronic hyperacidic    gastritis   takes    an   antacid drug for heartburn elimination. After its ingestion the patient feels better but at the same time he has a sensation of stomach swelling. Which of the following drugs might be the cause of such side effect?

172.

A 63 year  old  patient with  collapse presentations was delivered to the emergency  hospital.  A physician has chosen noradrenalin against hypotension. What is its mechanism of action?

173. A 5 year old child has been diagnosed with acute right distal pneumonia. Sputum inoculation revealed that the causative agent  is resistant  to  penicillin, but it is sensitive to macrolides.  What drug should be prescribed?
174.

Bacterioscopic examination of a smear from the  pharynx  of a diphtheria suspect revealed   bacilli  with  volutine   granules. What etiotropic drug  should  be  chosen in this case?

175. After implantation of a cardiac valve a young man constantly takes  indirect  anti-coagulants.  His state was complicated by  hemorrhage. What  substance  content has decreased in blood?
176.

Examination  of  a  child  who  hasn’t got fresh  fruit  and  vegetables  during  winter revealed numerous subcutaneous hemorrhages, gingivitis, carious cavities in teeth.  What vitamin combination should be prescribed in this case?

177.

During  an operation a patient got injection  of  muscle  relaxant dithylinum. Relaxation of skeletal  muscles and inhibition of respiration lasted  two hours.  This condition was caused  by absence  of the following enzyme in blood serum: