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Administration of doxycycline hydrochloride caused an imbalance of the symbiotic intestinal microflora. Specify the kind of imbalance caused by the antibiotic therapy:
A patient with signs of emotional lability that result in troubled sleep has been prescribed nitrazepam. Specify the sleep-inducing mechanism of this drug:
A 30-year-old patient with a past history of virus B hepatitis complains of prolonged nosebleeds. What drug will be most efficient in remedying this condition?
A 47-year-old male patient developed intestinal colic against the background of essential hypertension. In this situation it would be most efficient to arrest the colic by using drugs of the following group:
A patient is diagnosed with acute morphine hydrochloride intoxication. Prescribe an oxidizing agent for gastric lavage:
A 35-year-old female patient has been hospitalised with acute intoxication caused by salts of high-density metals (lead, most probably). As a part of complex therapy the antidote that contains two active sulfhydric groups has been prescribed. Specify this antidote:
A 60-year-old male patient has type II diabetes. A doctor has prescribed him synthetic hypoglycemic long-acting drug that is sulfonylurea derivative. What drug is it?
A patient has been given atropine sulfate for rapid relief of spastic colon symptoms. The use of this drug is contraindicated during the following disease:
A patient who had been taking diclofenac sodium for arthritis of mandibular joint developed an acute condition of gastric ulcer. Such side effect of this medicine is caused by inhibition of the following enzyme:
A 55-year-old male had been delivered to the resuscitation unit unconscious. Relatives reported him to have mistakenly drunk an alcoholic solution of unknown origin. On examination the patient was diagnosed with methanol intoxication. What antidote should be used in this case?
An 8-week-pregnant woman with acute respiratory disease and temperature rise up to 39, 0oC has called in a doctor. The doctor insisted on her avoiding taking paracetamol, because in this period of pregnancy there is a risk of its:
A child was born asphyxiated. What drug must be administered to the newborn to stimulate breathing?
A patient complaining of rapid pulse, dyspnea and bluish color of mucosa has been admitted to the cardiological department. The objective symptoms are as follows: edema of lower extremities, ascites. Which of the given medicines should be prescribed for intravenous administration to improve the patient’s general state?
A patient takes cholagogues. What other process besides biliary excretion will be stimulated?
An patient with insomnia induced by allergic rash and itch has been prescribed the drug that has antihistamine and hypnotic effect. Specify this drug:
During local anesthetization the patient has gone into anaphylactic shock. What drug must be administered to the patient?
Ascarid eggs have been detected during stool analysis. What drug should be prescribed?
A patient with continuous bronchopneumonia was admitted to the therapeutic department. Antibiotic therapy didn’t give much effect. What medication for improvement of immune state should be added to the complex treatment of this patient?
To anaesthetize the surgical treatment of burn surface, a patient was intravenously injected a medication for short-acting narcosis. 1 minute later the patient being under anesthesia showed increased blood pressure, tachycardia, increased tone of skeletal muscles; reflexes remained. After recovering from anesthesia the patient had disorientation and visual hallucinations. What medication was the patient injected?
A 45-year-old woman suffers from seasonal allergic rhinitis caused by the ambrosia blossoming. What medicine from the stabilizer of the adipose cells group can be used for prevention of this disease?
A 36 y.o. man has a craniocerebral trauma. Objectively: diminished breath sounds, thready pulse, no reflexes. What way of pyracetam introduction will be the most appropriate in this case?
A patient suffers from severe postoperative pseudomonadous infection. What of the following antibiotics should be administered in this case?
A patient ill with collagenesis has been taking prednisolone for a long time. Hypokaliemia development caused spastic pain of skeletal muscles. What medication should be used in order to correct potassium exchange?
In clinical practice tuberculosis is treated with izoniazid preparation - that is an antivitamin able to penetrate into the tuberculosis bacillus. Tuberculostatic effect is induced by the interference with replication processes and oxidation-reduction reactions due to the buildup of pseudo-coenzyme:
A patient suffering from coronary artery disease had taken a certain drug many times a day in order to arrest stenocardia attacks. Overdose of this drug finally caused intoxication. Objectively: cyanotic skin and mucous membranes, dramatic fall in the arterial pressure, tachycardia, respiration inhibition. Blood has increased concentration of methemoglobin. The drug the patient had taken relates to the following group:
To prevent the transplant rejection after organ transplantation it is required to administer hormonotherapy for the purpose of immunosuppression. What hormones are used for this purpose?
A patient has herpetic rash. What medication should be administered?
A patient in a transplantation centre underwent heart transplantation. The organ was taken from a donor who died in a road accident. Foreign heart can be rejected as a result of development of transplantation immunity. It is usually prevented by means of:
A patient suffers from chronic left-ventricular insufficiency. What medication should be administered?
A woman was delivered to a hospital for trachea intubation. What of the following drugs should be applied in this case?
A patient suffers from diabetes melitus. After the regular insulin injection his condition grew worse: there appeared anxiety, cold sweat, tremor of limbs, general weakness, dizziness. What preparation can eliminate these symptoms?
A 4 year old child was admitted to the orthopaedic department with shin fracture together with displacement. Bone fragments reposition requires preliminary analgesia. What preparation should be chosen?
A patient ill with neurodermatitis has been taking prednisolone for a long time. Examination revealed high rate of sugar in his blood. This complication is caused by the drug influence upon the following link of carbohydrate metabolism:
A patient who suffers from insomnia caused by emotional disorder was prescribed a hypnotic drug with tranquillizing effect. What hypnotic was prescribed?
Study of conversion of a food colouring agent revealed that neutralization of this xenobiotic takes place only in one phase - microsomal oxidation. Name a component of this phase:
A female patient was administered loratadine for allergic cheilitis treatment. What is the mechanism of the drug’s action?
A female patient consulted a doctor about a sense of epigastric discomfort, nausea and anorexia. A duodenal content analysis revealed lamblia. What drug should be prescribed?
A patient takes digoxin for cardiac insufficiency. What diuretic may increase digoxin toxicity due to the intensified excretion of K + ions?
A patient with coronary disease and arrhythmia has been administered a drug that blocks potassium channels and prolongs the action potential. What drug is it?
If a man has an attack of bronchiospasm it is necessary to reduce the effect of vagus on smooth muscles of bronchi. What membrane cytoreceptors should be blocked for this purpose?
During surgical manipulations a patient has been given novocaine injection for anesthesia. 10 minutes later the patient developed paleness, dyspnea, hypotension. What type of allergic reaction is it?
A liquidator of a breakdown at a nuclear power plant who was irradiated complained about vomiting that occurs all of a sudden. What medication should be prescribed?
Examination of a 70-year-old patient revealed insulin-dependent diabetes. What drug should be administered?
Which of the listed diuretic agents WILL NOT have diuretic effect on a patient with Addison’s disease?
A 65-year-old female patient has chronic constipations due to the colon hypotonia. What drug should be chosen in this case?
A patient who had been continuously taking drugs blocking the production of angiotensin II developed bradycardia and arrhythmia. A likely cause of these disorders is:
A patient with arthritis and varicose veins has been taking a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for a long time, which caused thrombosis of skin veins. Which of the following drugs might have caused this complication?
A patient has recurrent attacks of epileptic seizures and stays unconscious between them. In order to stop convulsions the drugs of the following group should be used in the first place:
A 26-year-old woman at 40 weeks pregnant has been delivered to the maternity ward. Objectively: the uterine cervix is opened, but the contractions are absent. The doctor has administered her a hormonal drug to stimulate the labor. Name this drug:
A hypertensive patient had been keeping to a salt-free diet and taking antihypertensive drugs together with hydrochlorothiazide for a long time. This resulted in electrolyte imbalance. What disorder of the internal environment occurred in the patient?
A 12-year-old child has a viral infection complicated by obstructive bronchitis. Bronchospasm can be eliminated by inhalations of a drug from the following pharmacological group:
A 50-year-old patient with food poisoning is on a drip of 10% glucose solution. It not only provides the body with necessary energy, but also performs the function of detoxification by the production of a metabolite that participates in the following conjugation reaction:
A patient has been administered an anti-inflammatory drug that blocks the action of cyclooxygenase. Specify this anti-inflammatory agent:
A 46-year-old female is scheduled for a maxillofacial surgery. It is known that the patient is prone to high blood coagulation. What natural anticoagulant can be used to prevent blood clotting?
Infectious diseases are treated with antibiotics (streptomycin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol). They inhibit the following stage of protein synthesis:
Despite the administration of cardiotonics and a thiazide diuretic a patient with chronic heart failure has persistent edemata, there is a risk of ascites. What medication should be administered in order to enhance the diuretic effect of the drugs used?
To prevent attacks of acute pancreatitis a doctor prescribed the patient trasylol (contrycal, gordox), which is an inhibitor of:
It is known that individuals with genetically caused deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase may develop RBC hemolysis in response to the administration of some antimalarial drugs. Manifestation of adverse reactions to drugs is called:
Curariform substances introduced into a human body cause the relaxation of all skeletal muscles. What changes in the neuromuscular synapse cause this phenomenon?
A comatose patient was taken to the hospital. He has a history of diabetes mellitus.Objectively: Kussmaul breathing, low blood pressure, acetone odor of breath. After the emergency treatment the patient’s condition improved. What drug had been administered to the patient?
A patient with biliary dyskinesia and constipations has been prescribed a cholagogue having also a laxative effect. What drug has been administered?
During a surgery with the use of hygronium the patient had an abrupt fall in blood pressure. Blood pressure can be normalized by the representatives of the following drug group:
A patient with a dislocated shoulder had been admitted to a hospital. With the purpose of skeletal muscle relaxation he was given an injection of relaxant dithylinum acting normally 5-7 minutes. However, the effect of dithylinum in this patient lasted up to 8 hours. What is the most likely cause of the prolonged effect of dithylinum in this patient?
A 40-year-old female patient diagnosed with acute pancreatitis has been delivered to the admission department of a regional hospital. What drug should be administered the patient in the first place?
A female patient with bronchial asthma had taken prednisolone tablets (1 tablet 3 times a day) for 2 months. Due to a significant improvement of her condition the patient suddenly stopped taking it. What complication is likely to develop in this case?
A 42-year-old male patient with gout has an increased blood uric acid concentration. In order to reduce the level of uric acid the doctor administered him allopurinol. Allopurinol is the competitive inhibitor of the following enzyme:
A 60-year-old patient with a long history of stenocardia takes coronarodilator agents. He has also been administered acetylsalicylic acid to reduce platelet aggregation. What is the mechanism of antiplatelet action of acetylsalicylic acid?
Pterin derivatives (aminopterin and methotrexate) are the inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase, so that they inhibit the regeneration of tetrahydrofolic acid from dihydrofolate. These drugs inhibit the intermolecular transfer of monocarbon groups, thus suppressing the synthesis of the following polymer:
A 60-year-old male patient has a 9-year history of diabetes and takes insulin Semilente for the correction of hyperglycemia.10 days ago he began taking anaprilin for hypertension.One hour after administration of the antihypertensive drug the patient developed hypoglycemic coma. What is the mechanism of hypoglycemia in the case of anaprilin use?
A patient diagnosed with focal tuberculosis of the upper lobe of the right lung had been taking isoniazid as a part of combination therapy. After some time, the patient reported of muscle weakness, decreased skin sensitivity, blurred vision, impaired motor coordination. Which vitamin preparation should be used to address these phenomena?
A patient has been given high doses of hydrocortisone for a long time. This caused atrophy of one of the adrenal cortex zones. Which zone is it?
A patient suffering from myasthenia has been administered proserin. After its administration the patient has got nausea, diarrhea, twitch of tongue and skeletal muscles. What drug would help to eliminate the intoxication?
Pharmacological effects of anti- depressants are based upon blocking (inhibiting) the enzyme that acts as a catalyst for the breakdown of biogenic amines noradrenalin and serotonin in the mitochondria of cephalic neurons. What enzyme takes part in this process?
For relief of hypertensive crisis a doctor administered a patient a drug that apart from antihypertensive effect has also sedative, spasmolytic and anti-convulsive effect. The drug was taken parenterally. When it is taken enterally it acts as a laxative and cholagogue. What drug was administered?
A patient has been diagnosed with transmural myocardial infarction. What drug should be given in order to prevent cardiogenic shock?
A patient suffers from pulmonary tuberculosis. During treatment neuritis of visual nerve arose. What drug has caused this by-effect?
A 64 year old woman has impairment of twilight vision (hemeralopy). What vitamin should be recommended in the first place?
A man got poisoned with mushrooms. They contain muscarine that stimulates muscarinic cholinoreceptors. What symptom is typical for poisoning with inedible mushrooms?
As a result of durative antibiotic therapy a 37 year old patient developed intestinal dysbacteriosis. What type of drugs should be used in order to normalize intestinal microflora?
An elderly patient has chronic constipations induced by large intestine hypotonia. What drug should be administered?
After 4 months of treatment for tuberculosis the patient began complaining of toes and fingers numbness, sensation of creeps. He was diagnosed with polyneuritis. What antituberculous drug might have caused these complications?
While under barbituric anaesthesia a 65 year old male patient developed respiratory inhibition. Anesthesiologist made him a 10 ml intravenous injection of 0,5% bemegride solution. The patient’s condition got better, the pulmonary ventilation volume increased. What phenomenon underlies the interaction of these medications?
A patient has a slowly healing fracture. What medicine can be used to accelerate formation of connective tissue matrix?
A nurse accidentally injected a nearly double dose of insulin to a patient with diabetes mellitus. The patient lapsed into a hypoglycemic coma. What drug should be injected in order to help him out of coma?
A patient has myocardial infarction with thrombosis of the left coronary artery. What pharmacological preparation group should be used to reestablish blood flow?
A 20 year old patient complains of morbid thirst and hyperdiuresis (up to 10 l daily). Glucose concentration in blood is normal but it is absent in urine. The patient has been diagnosed with diabetes insipidus. What hormonal drug is the most appropriate for management of this disorder?
A patient suffering from syphilis has been treated with bismuth preparations. As a result of it some grey spots turned up on the mucous membrane of the oral cavity; nephropathy symptoms were also present. What drug should be used for treatment of bismuth intoxication?
A 63 year old patient with collapse presentations was delivered to the emergency hospital. A physician has chosen noradrenalin against hypotension. What is its mechanism of action?
Bacterioscopic examination of a smear from the pharynx of a diphtheria suspect revealed bacilli with volutine granules. What etiotropic drug should be chosen in this case?
Examination of a child who hasn’t got fresh fruit and vegetables during winter revealed numerous subcutaneous hemorrhages, gingivitis, carious cavities in teeth. What vitamin combination should be prescribed in this case?
During an operation a patient got injection of muscle relaxant dithylinum. Relaxation of skeletal muscles and inhibition of respiration lasted two hours. This condition was caused by absence of the following enzyme in blood serum: