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A 27-year-old woman has dropped penicillin containing eye drops. In a few minutes there appeared feeling of itching, burning of the skin, lips and eyelids edema, whistling cough, decrease of BP. What immunoglobulins take part in the development of this allergic reaction?
Slime, blood and protozoa 30-200 microns long have been revealed in a man’s feces. The body is covered with cilias and has correct oval form with a little bit narrowed anterior and wide round shaped posterior end. At the anterior end a mouth is visible. In cytoplasm there are two nuclei and two short vacuoles. What are the described features typical for?
Synthesis of phospholipids is disturbed as a result fatty infiltration of liver. Indicate which of the following substances can enhance the process of methylation during phospholipids synthesis?
An individual is characterized by rounded face, broad forehead, a mongolian type of eyelid fold, flattened nasal bridge, permanently open mouth, projecting lower lip, protruding tongue, short neck, flat hands, and stubby fingers. What diagnosis can be put to the patient?
A patient visited a dentist with complaints of redness and edema of his mouth mucous membrane in a month after dental prosthesis. The patient was diagnosed with allergic stomatitis. What type of allergic reaction by Gell and Cumbs underlies this disease?
A patient suffering from thrombophlebitis of the deep crural veins suddenly died. Autopsy has shown freely lying red friable masses with dim crimped surface in the trunk and bifurcation of the pulmonary artery. What pathologic process was revealed by morbid anatomist?
Secretion of what gastrointestinal hormones will be primarily decreased as a result of duodenum removal?
It is planned to use the territory of an old cattle burial ground (which is not used for more than 50 years) for building houses. But ground analysis revealed presence of the pathogen of a very dangerous illness. Which of the indicated microorganisms is likely to remain in the ground for such a long time?
From the nasopharynx of a 5-year-old child it was excreted a microorganism which is identical to Corynebacterium diphtheriae dose according to morphological and biochemical signs. But this microorganism does not produce exotoxin. As a result of what process can this microorganism become toxigenic?
A 50-year-old man has felt vague abdominal discomfort within past 4 months. Physical examination revealed no lymphadenopathy, and no abdominal masses or organomegaly at palpation. Bowel sounds are heard. An abdominal CT scan shows a 20 cm retroperitoneal soft tissue mass obscuring the left psoas muscle. A stool specimen tested for occult blood is negative. Which of the following neoplasms is this man most likely to have?
During the fetal period of the development in the vascular system of the fetus a large arterial (Botallo’s) duct is functioning which converts into lig.arteriosum after birth. What anatomical formations does this duct connect?
A 60-year-old patient was admitted to the surgical department because of infection caused by blue pus bacillus (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) which is sensitive to penicillin antibiotics. Indicate which of the given penicillins has marked activity to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa?
A 45-year-old woman suffers from seasonal allergic rhinitis caused by the ambrosia blossoming. What medicine from the stabilizer of the adipose cells group can be used for prevention of this disease?
A 38-year-old man who poisoned himself with mercury dichloride was taken to the admission room in grave condition. What antidote should be immediately introduced?
A 46-year-old man complains of difficulties with nasal breathing. Mikulicz’s cells, accumulation of epithelioid cells, plasmocytes, lymphocytes, hyaline balls were discovered in the biopsy material of the thickened nasal mucosa. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A patient with clinical signs of immunodeficiency has no changes of the number and functional activity of T- and B- lymphocytes. Defect with dysfunction of antigen-presentation to the immunocompetent cells was found during examination on the molecule level. Defect of what cells is the most probable?
A 60-year-old patient has reduced perception of high-frequency sounds. What structures’ disorder of auditory analyzer caused these changes?
The effect of electric current on the excitable cell caused depolarization of its membrane. Movement of what ions through the membrane caused depolarisation?
Live vaccine was injected into the human body. Increasing activity of what connective tissue cells can be expected?
When a patient with traumatic impairment of the brain was examined, it was discovered that he had stopped to distinguish displacement of an object on the skin. What part of the brain was damaged?
In the blood of a 26-year-old man 18% of erythrocytes of the spherical, ball-shaped, flat and spinous shape have been revealed. Other erythrocytes were in form of the concavo-concave disks. How is this phenomenon called?
A 10-year-old girl often experiences acute respiratory infections with multiple punctate haemorrages in the places of clothes friction. Hypovitaminosis of what vitamin has the girl?
Different functional groups can be presented in the structure of L-amino acid’s radicals. Identify the group that is able to form ester bond:
Moving of the daughter chromatids to the poles of the cell is observed in the mitotically dividing cell. At what stage of the mitotic cycle is this cell?
During examination of a patient, there was found a neoplasm in the white substance of cerebral hemispheres with localization in the knee and frontal part of posterior crus of internal capsule. Fibres of what conductive tract of the brain will be disrupted?
A patient with diabetes mellitus has been delivered in hospital in the state of unconsciousness. Arterial pressure is low. The patient has acidosis. Point substances, which accumulation in the blood results in these manifestations:
A doctor administered Allopurinol to a 26-year-old young man with the symptoms of gout. What pharmacological action of Allopurinol ensures therapeutical effect?
A patient who came to the doctor because of his infertility was administered to make tests for toxoplasmosis and chronic gonorrhoea. Which reaction should be performed to reveal latent toxoplasmosis and chronic gonorrhoea of the patient?
Under some diseases it is observed aldosteronism accompanied by hypertension and edema due to sodium retention in the organism. What organ of the internal secretion is affected under aldosteronism?
An experiment proved that UV-radiated cells of patients with xeroderma pigmentosum restore the native DNA structure slower than cells of healthy individuals as a result of reparation enzyme defection. What enzyme helps this process?
A patient, who suffers from congenital erythropoietic porphyria, has skin photosensitivity. The accumulation of what compound in the skin cells can cause it?
A 40-year-old patient complains of intensive heartbeats, sweating, nausea, visual impairment, arm tremor, hypertension. From his anamnesis: 2 years ago he was diagnosed with pheochromocytoma. Hyperproduction of what hormones causes the given pathology?
A 60-year-old man felt asleep after cerebral hemorrhage for a long time. Damage of what structure caused this state?
Tuberculosis can be treated by means of combined chemotherapy that includes substances with different mechanisms of action. What antituberculous medication inhibits transcription of RNA into DNA in mycobacteria?
A patient experienced a sudden temperature rise up to 390C. After 6 hours the temperature normalized. On the 2-nd day the attack recurred: in the period of paroxysm the temperature reached 410C, apyrexial period began after 8 hours. What type of temperature profile is it?
Cerebral trauma caused increase of ammonia formation. What amino acid takes part in removal of ammonia from cerebral tissue?
A 40-year-old woman was admitted to the infectious diseases department with high body temperature. Objectively: marked meningeal symptoms. A spinal cord punction was made. What anatomic formation was puncturated?
The energy inputs of a healthy man have been measured. In what state was the patient if his energy inputs were less than the main exchange?
Examination of a newborn boy’s genitals revealed a cleft of urethra that opens on the inferior surface of his penis. What developmental anomaly is meant?
To prevent long-term effects of 4-day malaria a 42-year-old patient was prescribed primaquine. On the 3-rd day from the begin of treatment there appeared stomach and heart pains, dyspepsia, general cyanosis, hemoglobinuria. What caused side effects of the preparation?
A 17-year-old boy fell seriously ill, body temperature rose up to 38,50C, there is cough, rhinitis, lacrimation, nasal discharges. What kind of inflammation is it?
A genetics specialist analyzed the genealogy of a family and found that both males and females may have the illness, not across all the generations, and that healthy parents may have ill children. What is the type of illness inheritance?
A patient who has been treated with diazepam on account of neurosis complains of toothache. Doctor administered him an analgetic, but its dose was lower than average therapeutic dose. What phenomenon did the doctor take into account while prescribing the patient an underdose?
Inflammatory process of modified subserous layer around cervix of the uterus caused an intensive pain syndrome. In what region of genitals does the pathological process take place?
A 2-year-old child has got intestinal dysbacteriosis, which resulted in hemorrhagic syndrome. What is the most likely cause of hemorrhage of the child?
Autopsy of a 46-year-old man revealed multiple brown-and-green layers and hemorrhages on the mucous membrane of rectum and sigmoid colon; slime and some blood in colon lumen; histologically - fibrinous colitis. In course of bacteriological analysis of colon contents S.Sonne were found. What is the most probable diagnosis?
A patient had been ill with bronchial asthma for many years and died from asthmatic fit. Histologic lung examination revealed: lumen of bronchioles and small bronchis contain a lot of mucus with some eosinophils, there is sclerosis of alveolar septums, dilatation of alveoli lumen. What mechanism of development of hypersensibility reaction took place?
To anaesthetize the surgical treatment of burn surface, a patient was intravenously injected a medication for short-acting narcosis. 1 minute later the patient being under anaesthesia showed increased blood pressure, tachycardia, increased tone of skeletal muscles; reflexes remained. After recovering from anaesthesia the patient had disorientation and visual hallucinations. What medication was the patient injected?
Desulfiram is widely used in medical practice to prevent alcoholism. It inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase. Increased level of what metabolite causes aversion to alcohol?
A patient died from acute cardiac insufficiency. The histological examination of his heart revealed the necrotized section in myocardium of the left ventricle, which was separated from undamaged tissue by the zone of hyperemic vessels, small hemorrhages and leukocytic infiltration. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Kidneys of a man under examination show increased resorbtion of calcium ions and decreased resorbtion of phosphate ions. What hormone causes this phenomenon?
Part of alveoles of a preterm infant didn’t spread because of enhanced elastic recoil of lungs. How can this recoil be reduced?
A young man has a painless formation without marked borders in the soft tissues of his thigh. On the tissue bioptate the formation looks like flesh of fish and consists of immature fibroblast-like cells with multiple mitosis growing through the muscles. What is the most likely diagnosis?
In course of prophylactic medical examination a 7-year-old boy was diagnosed to have daltonism. Parents are healthy, color vision is normal. But grandfather from the mother’s side has the same disorder. What is the type of inheriting of this anomaly?
A 38-year-old patient died during intractable attack of bronchial asthma. Histologic examination revealed mucus accumulation in bronchial lumen, a lot of fat cells (labrocytes) in the wall of bronchis, many of them are in the state of degranulation, there are also a lot of eosinophils. What pathogenesis of bronchial changes is it?
A patient with thrombophlebitis of lower extremities had got chest pains, blood spitting, growing respiratory failure that caused his death. Autopsy revealed multiple pulmonary infarctions. What is the most probable reason of their development?
A woman with 0 (I) blood group has born a child with AB blood group. This woman’s husband has A blood group. What genetic interaction explains this phenomenon?
A 30-year-old woman was diagnosed with insufficiency of exocrinous function of pancreas. Hydrolisis of what nutrients will be disturbed?