Lost Your Password?
You have reached of 200 points, ( %)
Prophase: the chromosomes condense and become rodlike and distinct chromosomes suddenly appear under the light microscope; nucleoli and nuclear envelope disappear
Metaphase: chromosomes are aligned in a plane on the metaphase plate at equator.
Anaphase: diploid set of daughter chromosomes move toward each opposite poles;
Telophase: opposite to prophase and characterized by a cleavage furrow, which leaves the midbody (containing overlapping polar microtubules) between the newly forming two identical daughter cells; reformation of the nuclear envelope around the condensed chromosomes in the daughter cells; reappearance of nucleoli.
H1 receptor antagonists can be subdivided into 3 generations of drugs:
I generation antihistamine: chloropyramine, diphenhydramine, clemastine, cyproheptadine, promethazine, quifenadine and hydroxyzine.
Such drugs express a strong sedative effect, are well dissolved in fats and, in addition to H1- receptors, block cholinergic, muscarinic and serotonin receptors. They also easily permeate the blood-brain barrier, which explains the sedative effect.
II generation antihistamines: loratadine, terfenadine, astemizole, acrivastine, dimethindene, levocabastin, azelastin.
The above mentioned preparations have almost no cholinolytic effects, no sedative effects (it does not suppress CNS) and differ only by selectivitively inhibiting to H1-receptors.
However, they may express cardiotoxic effects. This group is characterized by rapid onset and prolonged clinical effect. The prolonged action time is achieved due to increased level of protein binding, cumulation of the drug and its metabolites in the body, and slow excretion.
Indications: bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis, pollen fever, and allergic rhinitis.
III generation antihistamines: cetirizine, fexofenadine and deslorantadine. or metabolites.
These antihistamine drugs are active metabolites of I and II generation antihistamines.
Coli titer is the smallest amount of water where 1 E.coli is present.
Coli index is the amount of E. coli in 1 liter of water.
2 E.coli - 500ml
1 E.coli - ?
? = 250
Therefore, Coli titer = 250
1 liter of water = 1000ml
2 E. coli - 500ml
? - 1000ml (1L)
? = 4
Therefore, Coli index = 4
Coliform index (Coli index) and Coli titer are used to rate the purity of water, soil and air based on the count of fecal bacteria by testing for coliforms especially the well known Escherichia coli (E. coli).
Muscle contraction is classified into 2 types: Isotonic and Isometric.
· Isotonic contraction: the tension in the muscle remains the same but the length of the muscle fiber is changing (Iso = same; tonic = tension) e.g. simple flexion of arm, where shortening of muscle fibers occurs but the tension does not change.
· Isometric contraction: the length of muscle fibers remains the same but the tension is increased e.g. pulling any heavy object when the muscles become stiff and strained with increased tension but the length does not change. Holding (but not moving) – length does not change.
Organs of abdominal cavity are projected on these regions of ventral abdominal wall.
The liver (right part), gallbladder, right flexure of colon, upper part of right kidney with suprarenal gland are projected on right subcostal region.
Left part of liver, stomach, upper half of duodenum, pancreas, abdominal aorta, celiac trunk and celiac plexus – epigastric region.
Cardiac part and fundus of stomach, spleen, left flexure of colon, upper part of left kidney with suprarenal gland, pancreas tail – left subcostal region.
Ascending colon, right kidney, loops of ileum intestine, right ureter – right lateral region.
Transversus colon, lower half of duodenum, large curvature of stomach, gate of kedneys, abdominal aorta and inferior cava vein. – umbilical region.
Descending colon, left kidney, loops of small intestine, left ureter – left lateral region.
Loops of small intestine, urinary bladder, lower part of ureters – pubic region.
Caecum with apendix, final part of ileum intestine, right ureter – right inguinal region.
Sigmoid colon, loops of small intestine, left ureter – left inguinal region.
According to international classification (1982), such processes as glandular endometrial hyperplasia, cystic glandular endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial polyps belong to benign endometrial diseases.
Glandular endometrial hyperplasia with cellular proliferation, adenomatous hyperplasia and adenomatous polyps are precancerous uterine diseases.
Cystic glandular hyperplasia, which is found in postmenopausal women or in reproductive period belongs to precancerous uterine lesions.
Glandular endometrial hyperplasia and cystic glandular endometrial hyperplasia are different stages of the same process. Difference between them is presence or absence of cysts in endometrial hyperplasia (that is cystic glandular endometrial hyperplasia contains cyst; while glandular endometrial hyperplasia has no cyst). Atypical cellular signs at these diseases are not present. The common endometrial polyp is made up of endometrial tissue.
"Endometrial cystic glandular hyperplasia - dilated and cyst-like"
Alpha Tocopherol ( vitamin E) is a water soluble vitamin with Antioxidant function. It protects the baby by destroying reactive oxygen species.
Folic acid - Vitamin B9
Cyanocobalamin- Vitamin B12 ( megaloblastic anemia)
Pyridoxal phosphate - Vitamin B6
The role of Mg2+ ions are:
Sludge phenomenon is a microscopic process that occurs in blood vessels. Occurs due to increased viscosity in blood and tendency of RBC to aggregate. A thrombus is a blood clot that adheres to blood vessels. Emboli are thrombi,tissues or foreign particles that move away from the area of production and travel through the bloodstream.
There are two systems of clotting, intrinsic and extrinsic, which converge upon what is called the final common pathway.
Intrinsic system (Internal mechanism of prothrombinase activation) - This system is so called, because all factors taking part in the process are derived from the blood itself and it can take place in pure blood (blood not contaminated with tissue juice) kept in a test tube. This process takes place in the following six stages:
Each of these steps is regulated by plasma and cellular co-factors and Ca2+. The inactive and active blood clotting factors are distinguished by writing and 'a' respectively after the factor.
Stage 1: Three plasma proteins, i.e. Hageman factor (XII), high molecular weight kininogen and pre-kallikrein form a complex with vascular subendolhelial collagen.
Satge 2: Factor XII-a converts factor XI-i to XI-a.
Stage 3: Factor XI-a converts factor IX-i to IX-a.
Stage 4: Factor IX-a in the presence of factor VIII, Ca2+ a platelet membrane lipoprotein (platelet factor 3) converts X to X-a.
Stage 5: Several factors take part in the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin. These include factor X-a, factor V-a, Ca2+ and phospholipids.
Stage 6: Conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin is brought about by thrombin
Dimercaprol (unithiol, British anti-lewisite) is used to chelate mercury, bismuth, arsenic and in combination with edentate calcium disodium to treat lead intoxication. It contains two sulfuhydryl (SH-) groups and forms two bonds with metal ions. Administered intramuscularly.
Nalorphine hydrochloride – antidote, blocks opoid receptors and replace opoids from binding with them.
Bemegride - an analeptic used to treat acute barbiturate overdose.
Naloxone - is indicated for known or suspected opioid overdose.
Methylene blue - it is mainly used to treat methemoglobinemia; mild antiseptic to kill bacteria
Neoplastic growth: the main three stages are - transformation, promotion and progression.
Transformation. The first stage; it is followed with the cell oncogene activation. The cell acquires unusual property, which is called immortalisation. This is a potential unlimited division, immortality ability.
Promotion. Supplementary influences upon immortalisated cell, are necessary to exit it out of the latent state, for giving a push to irrepressible division. These are provoking factors, which are supplementary doses of chemical cancerogenes or x-rays, retroviral superinfection. They are named promotors.
Progression is the very last and the most protracted stage of neoplastic growth development. The final progression stage of any tumor is its transformation into the malignant neoplasm. The major criteria of malignant tumor is its ability to generalisation, that is – to metastasing. Metastasing includes three stage: neoplastic invasion into the surrounding tissues, tumor cells transport with the blood and lymphatic vessles (metastases into the mediastinal lymph nodes), their implantation indifferent organs and tissues.
Evaporation is a way the body dissipates heat to the environment by its evaporation via sweat or evaporation of moisture from the skin and respiratory tract mucous membranes of (“wet” heat loss). Evaporation closely related to relative humidity.
Heat Radiation is a way the surface of the human body emits heat to the environment in the form of infrared rays. The amount of heat the body radiates to the environment is proportional to the surface of radiation area and to the difference between the mean values of skin and environment temperature. The surface radiation area is the total surface area of body parts that contact the air. Elimination of heat by radiation increases with a decrease in ambient temperature and decreases with its increase. It is possible to reduce elimination of heat by radiation via reduction of the surface of radiation area (“winding oneself into a ball”). Heat radiation does not require a medium for transfer of heat. (Key words: naked or lightly clothed).
Convection is a way the body eliminates heat by means of transferring heat via moving particles of air or water. To dissipate heat by means of convection, body surface shall be airflowed at a temperature that is lower than the temperature of the skin. At that, air layer contacting with the skin warms up, decreases its density, rises and is replaced by cooler, denser air. By increasing the speed of the air flow (wind, ventilation) heat emission increases significantly as well (forced convection). Convection requires convection current; current of gases or liquids (Key words: air over exposed area of skin).
Conduction is a way the body eliminates heat by means of direct contact with another object. Heat is transferred down the temperature gradient (i.e. from the object of higher temperature to the object of lower temperature). Conduction requires contact with another object (Key words: in water).
· Echinococcus granulosus causes Echinococcosis. It is composed of a scolex and only 3 proglottids, making it one of the smallest tapeworms. The scolex has a circle of hooks and 4 suckers similar to Taenia solium. Dogs are the most important definitive hosts. The intermediate hosts are usually sheep. Humans are almost always dead-end intermediate hosts. Transmission: ingestion of eggs from dog faeces. Disease – hydatid cysts in liver causing anaphylaxis if antigens released.
· Diphyllobothrium latum causes diphyllobothriasis. A fish tapeworm. In contrast to the other cestodes, which have suckers , the scolex of D. latum has two elongated sucking grooves by which the worm attaches to the intestinal wall. Infection by D. latum causes little damage in the small intestine. In some individuals, megaloblastic anemia occurs as a result of vitamin B12 deficiency caused by preferential uptake of the vitamin by the worm. Transmission: ingestion of larvae from raw freshwater fish. Caviar is prepared from fish.
· Taeniasis: there are two important human pathogens in the genus Taenia: T. solium (pork tapeworm) and T. saginata (beef tapeworm)
· Trichiniasis (Trichinosis) is caused by Trichinella spiralis (nematode- roundworm). Transmission: fecal-oral; undercooked meat (especially pork). A few days after eating undercooked meat, usually pork, the patient experiences diarrhea followed by 1-2weeks later by fever, muscle pain, periorbital edema and eosinophilia.
· Ascaridiasis (Ascariasis) caused by Ascaris lumbricoides (giant roundworm). The major damage occurs during larval immigration rather than from the presence of the adult worm in the intestines. The principal sites of tissue reaction are the lungs, where inflammation with an eosinophilic exudates occurs in response to larval antigens. Ascaris pneumonia with fever, cough and eosinophilia can occur with a heavy larval burden.
Glycogen storage diseases: 12 types, all resulting in abnormal glycogen metabolism and an accumulation of glycogen within cells. Type I (Von Gierke disease): findings – severe fasting hypoglycemia, ↑↑glycogen in liver, ↑blood lactate, ↑triglycerides, ↑uric acid and hepatomegaly. Deficient enzyme is glucose-6-phosphatase. It is autosomal recessive.
The post central gyrus is responsible for sensation
The pre central gyrus- for motor activities.
The calcarine sulcus( occipital lobe)- for sight
The Broca’s area ( frontal lobe)- for speech articulation.
Albumin is a protein specifically synthesized in the liver. Normally ranges from 35-55g/L. Low albumin level, elevated Lactate dehydrogenase 5 (LDH5), elevated alkaline phosphatase are markers for liver disorders.Increased Aspartate and alanine transaminase levels (ALT &AST) are also used but not specific because they increase in disorders of some other organs eg, heart and kidney. Creatine phosphokinase (MB isoform) is a marker for heart related issues.
Hydronephrosis refers to the dilation of renal pelvis and calyces due to partial or intermittent obstruction of the outflow of urine.
Pulmonary surfactant is a lipoprotein produced by type II alveolocytes and secreted into the alveolar space. It is responsible for the reduction of surface tension between air/liquid thereby preventing the lungs from collapse.
The pterygopalatine ganglion or sphenopalatine ganglion is a parasympathetic ganglion that supplies the lacrimal gland and nasal mucosa. The Otic ganglion supplies the posterior ⅓ of the tongue and the parotid gland for salivation. The ciliary ganglion supplies the ciliary and sphincter pupillae muscles of the eye.
Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells present in the islets of langerhans in the pancreas. It stimulates tissue uptake of glucose, thereby reducing blood glucose level. A person in a diabetic comatose state should immediately be administered rapid acting insulin eg,Humalog.
Cardiac insufficiency: Cardiac glycoside is the most appropriate in this case. Cardiac glycosides are glycosidic drugs of plant origin having cardiac inotropic property, increase myocardial contractility and output.
Digitoxin is long-acting but basically administered orally and used mainly for chronic heart failure (also digoxin).
Pleurocentesis is a procedure used in removal of fluid or air from the pleural space.These exudates accumulate due to increased permeability of blood vessels.
Obturation (obstruction, to close) of bile duct – it can be:
* Intrahepatic – blockage of intrahepatic bile ducts
* Extrahepatic – blockage of common bile duct (ductus choledochus).
* malabsorption: bile salts do not enter the Small Intestine; no emulsification of fat.
*light coloured stool: due to lack of urobilin (which leads to lack of stercobilin).
*Jaundice (posthepatic, mechanic, obstructive): increased conjugated Bilirubin.
The findings are specific for obstruction of bile duct and bile acid deficiency.
Indirect; Hemolytic; Prehepatic
Mixed; Parenchymal; Hepatic
Direct; Obstructive; Mechanic; Posthepatic
Decreases (pale faces)
Absent (clay coloured faeces)
Type of bilirubin in blood
Conjugated and Unconjugated
Rheumatoid (atrophic) arthritis is a chronic progressive inflammatory arthritis of unknown origin involving multiple joints and characterized by disorganization of connective tissue (collagen) of the synovial membrane and articular cartilage and development of their deformation. Disorganization of the connective tissue cause increase in proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) concentration in blood. Proteoglycans and GAGs are responsible for the physical properties of ground substance. Main morphological appearance of rheumatoid arthritis is synovitis. It has 3 stages: in the first stage, it is characterized by an acute inflammatory reaction with development of edema, hyperemia and infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages. Small areas of superficial necrosis or superficial erosions are covered by fibrinoid deposits. Not infrequently 2-3mm “rice bodies” (rice grains) composed of fibrin, fibronectin, collagen and immunoglobulin are present in joint cavities of seropositive patients.
Collagen is a major component of the connective tissue.
Sinus tachycardia is the increase in discharge of impulses from the sinoatrial (SA) node, resulting in increase in heart rate (heart rate increase up to 100beats/min).ECG is normal, except for short R-R interval (indicated by the merging of T waves with P waves).
Sinus bradycardia is the reduction in discharge of impulses from SA node resulting in decrease in heart rate. Heart rate is less than 60beats/min. Extrasystole is the premature contraction of the heart before its normal contraction. ECG is altered. Sinus arrhythmia is characterized by irregular generation of impulses and may be due to variations in the tone of the vagus nerve. ECG is altered.
Atropine is an antimuscarinic agent that causes mydriasis ( pupil dilation), increases salivation, heart rate and breathing rate.
Aminazine is an antipsychotic drug. Morphine is an opioid analgesic used in pain syndrome.
Amyloidosis of Spleen are observed in two patterns;
Sago Spleen- possess translucent pale and waxy nodules resembling sago granules ( semi-transparent greyish white).
Lardaceous spleen- possess map-like areas of amyloid deposits.
Emphysema is a condition of the lung characterised by permanent dilation of the air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles, accompanied by the destruction of their walls without obvious fibrosis.
Pneumonia is simply an acute inflammation of the respiratory tract. Phases- congestion and edema, red and gray hepatization and resolution phase.
Parathyroid glands are responsible for secretion of parathormone which increase and maintain blood level calcium, stimulates osteoclast activities. Has the opposite function of calcitonin which stimulates bone resorption. A decrease in parathormone due to parathyroid gland damage leads to hypocalcemia.
The Primary follicle presents with 1-2 layers of cells; secondary follicles have more cells with accumulation of follicular fluid.Mature/tertiary/graafian follicles are surrounded by granulosa cells called the cumulus oophorus, theca cells form their basement membrane.
The adrenal gland is made up of the cortex and medulla.The adrenal cortex is made of 3 zones namely;
Zona Glomerulosa: Mineralocorticoids eg. aldosterone
Zona Fasciculata; Glucocorticoids
Zona Reticularis: Androgens.
The medulla consists of chromaffin responsible for the secretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline.
Agglutination reaction is a method of diagnosis carried out with an antigen (from sample collected from patient) and a serum. Formation of clumps confirms the diagnosis.
Parkinson disease is associated with a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Parkinsonism is a progressive neurological disorder of muscle movement, characterized by tremors, muscular rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness in initiating and carrying out voluntary movements) and postural and gait abnormalities. Most cases involve people over the age of 65.
The disease is correlated with destruction of dopaminergic neurons in the substantial nigra with a consequent reduction of dopamine actions in the corpus striatum, parts of the brain’s basal ganglia system that are involved in motor control.
The substantial nigra, part of the extrapyramidal system is the source of dopaminergic neurons that terminate in the neostriatum.
Treatment: drugs – levodopa, carbidopa, selegiline, rasagiline
So far, levodopa has been the only drug tested on Parkinson.
Blood Hemostasis includes 3 phases;
I- Vascular spasm ( vasoconstriction)
II- Plug formation ( intrinsic/extrinsic pathway, activation of thrombin and activation of fibrinogen)
III- plug retraction ( fibrinolysis)
Hemolytic/Prehepatic Jaundice is the type of Jaundice that occurs because of excessive destruction of RBCs resulting in ↑ blood level of free, Indirect, unconjugated bilirubin. In this condition, the excretory function of the liver is normal. But the quantity of bilirubin ↑ enormously. The liver cells cannot excrete that much excess bilirubin rapidly. Formation of Urobilinogen (stercobilin) ↑ resulting in the excretion of more amount of stercobilin in stool and urine.
Gilbert syndrome (familial nonhemolytic Jaundice): Autosomal recessive defect. Impaired UGT activity. Jaundice occurs with fasting, volume depletion, stress, menses.
Physiologic Jaundice of newborn: begins on day 3 of life. Caused by normal macrophage destruction of fetal RBCs containing HbF and inability of the newborn’s liver to handle excess load.
The end product of the purine nucleotides catabolism in humans and other primates is uric acid (urate) which is excreted in urine. Allopurinol and febuxostat inhibits Xanthine oxidase (XO). Hypoxanthine and Xanthine which is more soluble is excreted in urine. Purine nucleotides (adenine and guanine). AMP – Adenosine monophosphate; GMP – Guanosine monophosphate
Pyrimidine (thymine, Uracil, cytosine); catabolism of thymine and uracil gives urea, while catabolism of cytosine gives β-alanine.
Hypertension is a condition caused by an increased vascular resistance in the walls of blood vessels. A reduced systolic pressure leads to the heart’s inability to push enough blood through this resistance leading to accumulation of a high amount of blood left in the heart even after systole (a cardiac overload).
Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterised by high levels of glucose in the blood . Tissue uptake of glucose is impaired this leads the body to search for an alternative source of energy, increasing the breakdown of other metabolites such as Fats. Triglyceride lipase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fats.
Hemosiderosis is characterised by breakdown of RBC. In the lungs, hemosiderin-laden macrophages or siderophages are referred to as ‘heart failure cells’.
Hemochromatosis is a genetic disorder characterised by increased absorption of iron.These iron are deposited in organs like pancreas, liver, skin, heart muscle and mesenteric lymph nodes.
Diffuse – multiple whitish layers of connective tissue
Cardiosclerosis – Atherosclerotic calcified plaques
RNA dependent DNA polymerase
DNA polymerase – synthesizes DNA
RNA dependent – from mRNA (on the matrix of virus mRNA)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): diploid genome (2 molecules of RNA). The 3 structural genes(i.e. proteins coded for by the genes) are:
· env (gp 120 and gp 41): formed from cleavage of gp 160 to form envelope glycoproteins. gp 120 is for attachment to host CD4+ T cell. gp 41 is for fusion and entry.
· Gag (p24): capsid protein
· pol: reverse transcriptase, aspartate protease, integrase.
ELISA/Western blot (immunoblot) tests look for antibodies to the viral proteins listed above.
Reverse transcriptase synthesizes dsDNA (ds-double stranded) from genomic RNA (mRNA); dsDNA integrates into host genome. Virus binds CD4 as well as a coreceptor, either CCR5 on macrophages (early infection) or CXCR4 on I cells (late infection).
· Homozygous CCR5 mutation – immunity
· Heterozygous CCR5 mutation – slower course.
Mammary gland: The nipple (papilla mammae) is situated on the anterior surface of the gland. It is surrounded by the areola (areola mammae). The areola contains the areolar (Montgomery’s) glands and sebaceous glands. The mammary gland is composed of acini, which make up the lobules, whose aggregation will form the lobes of the gland. The lobes are arranged in a radiating fashion and drained into lactiferous ducts. 18-20 lobes drain through 18-20 ducts, which converge or open on the nipple.
The lobes are partly separated from each other by irregular and incomplete fibrous septa, which are continuous with the gland stroma. The organ is anchored to the overlying skin and the underlying pectoral fascia by bands of fibrous tissue called the Cooper’s ligaments.
Respiratory centers are group of neurons which control the rate, rhythm and force of respiration. Depending upon the situation in brainstem, the respiratory centers are classified into two groups:
· Medullary centers consisting of: * dorsal respiratory group of neurons
*ventral respiratory group of neurons
· Pontine centers: * apneustic center
Dorsal respiratory group of neurons are diffusely situated in the nucleus of tractus solitaries which is present in the upper part of the medulla oblongata. Usually these neurons are collectively called inspiratory center. All neurons of the dorsal respiratory group are inspiratory neurons and generate inspiratory ramp by the virtue of their autorhythmic property. They are responsible for the basic rhythm of respiration.
Ventral respiratory group of neurons are present in nucleus ambiguous and nucleus retroambiguous in the medulla oblongata, anterior and lateral to the nucleus of tractus solitaries. Ventral respiratory group has both inspiratory and expiratory neurons.
Edemas are caused by i) Increase in hydrostatic pressure
ii) decrease in oncotic pressure ( maintained mainly by Albumins)
iii) change in osmotic pressure
Albumins are the major proteins that maintain oncotic pressure.
Piracetam is a nootropic drug. It improves brain function eg. memory. Diazepam,nitrazepam and medazepam are tranquilizers used in the treatment of anxiety.
Basedow’s disease (Grave’s disease, diffuse toxic goiter, primary hyperplasia): prismatic epithelium turns into cylindrical, epithelium proliferation with formation of papillae, colloid vacuolization (foamy colloid), formation of lymphoid follicles with germ centers are observed.
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is devoid of colloid.
A decrease in systolic pressure occurs due to low cardiac output and diastolic pressure, due to a reduction in vascular resistance as a result of low blood volume.
Neutralization reaction are antigen-antibody reaction in which the biological effects of viruses and toxins are made ineffective by homologous antibodies.
Precipitation is a test in which antibody interacts with the soluble antigen in the presence of an electrolyte at a specified pH and temperature to produce a precipitate.
Metoprolol is a beta 1 selective blocker. Used in treating hypertension, it decreases heart rate, contractility and cardiac output thereby reducing blood pressure.
Strophanthin and corglycon are indicated in acute heart failure.
Acute tubular necrosis/Necrotic nephrosis/Necronephrosis involves the death of tubular epithelial cells that form the renal tubules of the kidneys. Most common cause of acute renal failure. It can be ischemic or nephrotoxic.
· Ischemic acute tubular necrosis occurs due to hypoperfusion of the kidneys.
· Nephrotoxic acute tubular necrosis occurs as a result of direct damage to tubular cells by ingestion, injection or inhalation of a number of toxic agents. Toxic agents causing nephrotoxic acute tubular necrosis includes mercuric chloride, ethylene glycol, carbon tetrachloride etc.
Macroscopically, the kidneys are enlarged and swollen (edematous). On cut section, the cortex is pale, while the medulla is slightly darker than normal. The capsule can be easily removed.
Dysentery refers to bloody diarrhea with mucus. It refers to diarrhea with abdominal cramping and tenesmus in which loose stools contain blood, pus and mucus. Bacillary dysentery is caused by shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Shigella boydii and Shigella sonnei. Morphology: it has 4 stages namely: catarrhal colitis; fibrinous colitis; ulcer formation (ulcerative colitis); healing of the wound. Complications of dysentery includes perforation, intraintestinal hemorrhage and eventually death may result from intestinal or extraintestinal complications.
Fibrinous colitis stage produces a dirty grayish pseudomembrane (film). Catarrhal colitis stage produces edema (inflamed) and hyperemic mucosa.
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the volume of fluid filtered from the renal (kidney) glomerular capillaries into the Bowman's capsule per unit time. Factors affecting GFR include;
Renal blood flow rate
Glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure
Glomerular capillary permeability etc
Reduced oncotic pressure leads to edema ( accumulation of fluid).
Defects in male genitalia:
Hypospadia: fusion of the urethral folds is incomplete and abnormal openings of the urethra occur along the inferior (undersite) surface of the penis, usually near the glans, along the shaft or near the base of the penis.
Epispadia is a rare abnormality (1/30000 births) in which the urethral meatus is found on the dorsum (superior) surface of the penis.
Desensitization as a method of treating allergic diseases is used, in particular, to prevent serum anaphylaxis from repeated injections of serum preparations (e.g. tetanus toxoid), in accordance with the method proposed in 1907 by the Russian scientist A. M. bezredka. The method consists in injecting small concentrations of the preparation (toxoid antigen) that produce the sensitization, as a result, a state of anti-anaphylaxis arises (i.e. desensitization). Owing to this, the next injection of the reacting dose of the allergen does not produce anaphylaxis. The small concentrations injected are below threshold concentrations inducing complete and sustained deprivation of releasability (ability to release inflammatory mediators from activated mast cells having IgE attached to them already) without triggering degranulation. Basophil desensitization is regulated by their surface IgE levels.
Desensitization therapy in atopic individuals involves repeated injections of increasingly greater amounts of allergens, resulting in production of IgG antibodies that attach to allergens and prevent them from binding to mast cells.
Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE, Libman-sacks disease) is the classic prototype of the multisystem disease of autoimmune origin, characterized by a bewildering array of autoantibodies, particularly antinuclear antibodies. It is characterized principally by injury to the skin, joints, kidney, and serosal membranes. Antinuclear antibody is directed against several nuclear antigens and can be grouped into 4 categories:
· Antibodies to DNA
· Antibodies to histones
· Antibodies to nonhistone proteins bound to RNA
· Antibodies to nuclear antigens.
SLE is a type III hypersensitivity reaction (autoimmune - immune complex) with formation of immune complexes. It can cause diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis seen under the light microscope as “wire loop” of capillaries and granular under the immunofluorescence microscopy.
During cerebellar lesions, there are disturbances in posture, equilibrium and movements. Disturbances in movements: Speech disorders, ataxia, asynergia, asthenia (weak muscle contractions with characteristically rapid onset of muscle fatigue), Dysmetria, Intention tremor, astasia (loss of the capacity for sustained tetanic contractions), nystagmus, rebound phenomenon, dysarthria, adiadochokinesis, atonia (lack or impairment of muscle tone).
NB: Scanned or staccato speech is as a result of cerebellar disorders; while monotonus speech is as a result of parkinson\'s disease.
Diclofenac sodium is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. A prolonged use may lead to development of ulcers in the stomach or intestine.
In secondary fibrous-cavernous/(cavitary) tuberculosis,there are presence of disseminated foci of caseous necrosis in the lower lung lobe. Walls of the cavity has three membranes:
Inner: contains necrotic tissue
Middle: contains special granular tissue
External: contains fibrotic tissues.
In acute lymphoblastic leukemia, infiltrations are made up of lymphoblastic cells.
Acute radiation sickness occurs due to exposure to radiation. Symptoms include, aplastic anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, tumors etc.
Decompression sickness refers to injuries caused by a rapid decrease in the pressure that surrounds you, of either air or water. It occurs most commonly in scuba or deep-sea divers, although it also can occur during high-altitude or unpressurized air travel.
Vicasol or Menadione is a drug used as a precursor for vitamin K. It is indicated in bleeding/hemorrhage.
Contrycal is indicated in acute pancreatitis.
* Radiating pain: perceived at a site adjacent to or away from the site of origin but in the same dermatome i.e. supplied by afferent nerve fibers of one dorsal root.
* Viscera pain: organs, poorly localized, diffuse
* Protopathic pain: poorly localized pain
* Epicritic pain: well localized pain
* Phantom pain: pain from non-existent body structures (amputated limbs)
Phantom – if a leg has been amputated, the cut end heals with scar formation. The cut ends of nerve fibers are merged within the scar. If the cut end of sensory fibers are stimulated during movement of thigh, the patient feels as if the sensation is originating from non-existent leg. Sometimes the patient feels pain in non-existent limb.
Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin. Cholecalciferol (Vit. D3) is found in animals. It is regarded as a sunshine vitamin. Calcitriol is the biologically active form of Vit. D. Calcitriol acts at 3 different levels (intestine, kidney and bone) to maintain plasma calcium.
It increases the intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate.
In the osteoblasts of bone, it stimulates calcium uptake for deposition as calcium phosphate. Thus, calcitriol is essential for bone formation.
Calcitriol is also involved in minimizing the excretion of calcium and phosphate through the kidney, by decreasing their excretion and enhancing reabsorption.
Deficiency of Vitamin D causes rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Rickets in children is characterized by bone deformities due to incomplete bone mineralization, resulting in soft and pliable bones and delay in teeth formation. The weight bearing bones are bent to form bow legs.
Hippocrates classification due to temperament and social behavior: choleric, phlegmatic; sanguine; melancholic.
· Choleric: egocentric and extroverts, excitable, impulsive and restless (dry and hot).
· Phlegmatic: reasonable, calm, patient, caring and tolerant (moist and cold)
· Sanguine: lively, sociable, carefree, talkative and pleasure seeking (hot and moist)
· Melancholic: serious, introvert, cautious or even suspicious (cold and dry)
Lymph nodes are small encapsulated organs located along the pathway of lymphatic vessels. The supporting elements of the lymph node are:
*Capsule: composed of dense connective tissue that surrounds the node.
*Trabeculae: composed of dense connective tissue, which extend from the capsule into the substance of the node, forming a gross framework.
*Reticular tissue: composed of reticular cells and reticular fibers that forms a fine supporting meshwork throughout the remainder of the organ.
The parenchyma of the lymph node is divided into a cortex and medulla. The cortex consists of lymphocytes which are organized into nodules. The medulla of the lymph node consists of the medullary cords and medullary sinuses.
Tonsils: form a ring of lymphatic tissue at the entrance of the oropharynx; consisting of aggregations of lymphatic nodules.
Thymus is a lymphoepithelial organ located in the superior mediastinum. It possess a thin connective tissue capsule from which trabeculae extend into the parenchyma of the organ. The trabeculae establish domains in the thymus called thymic lobules. Thymic or hassall’s corpuscles are a distinguishing feature of the thymic medulla.
Spleen is the largest lymphatic organ. Most of the spleen consists of splenic pulp. Splenic pulp is divided into white pulp and red pulp. The spleen is enclosed by a dense connective tissue capsule from which trabeculae extend into the parenchyma of the organ.
Babes-Negri bodies are found in rabies; Paschen bodies are found in Variola (smallpox).
A child from a diabetic parent has a higher probability of being diabetic in future.
The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a group of chemically dissimilar agents that differ in their antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. They act primarily by inhibiting the cyclooxygenase (COX 1 and 2) enzymes that catalyze the first step in prostanoid biosynthesis. This leads to decrease prostaglandin synthesis with both beneficial and unwanted effects. Aspirin is one of the most important NSAID. Its most common side effect is its gastrointestinal (GI) effect. Normally, prostacyclin (PGI2) inhibits gastric acid secretion, whereas PGE2 and PGF2α stimulate synthesis of protective mucus in both the stomach and small intestine.
Celecoxib is a selective cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitor. Approved for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, acute to moderate pain, also approved for patients with peptic ulcers or gastroduodenitis. This is due to the fact that only COX 1 is responsible for the gastrointestinal protective functions.
The filtration barrier of the glomerulus consists of fenestrated epithelium lying on basement membrane also known as filtration pores.
Proximal part of nephron has cuboidal epithelium with brush borers.
Distal part has no brush border.
The mediastinum is the space between the two lungs in the thoracic cavity. It is divided into Superior and Inferior ( anterior, middle and posterior). A retro pharyngeal abscess is likely to spread to the posterior mediastinum.
A mucolytic drug depolymerizes ( breakdown) mucus. Ambroxol and acetylcysteine belong to this group. Anaprillin is a non-selective beta blocker and Atropine is a muscarinic blocker.
Bruton’s agammaglobulinemia is an X-linked immunodeficiency disease that occurs due to the mutation in the gene that codes Bruton tyrosine kinase enzyme (BTK). This enzyme helps B lymphocytes in maturing. Since B cells are responsible for the production of immunoglobulins, a reduction in antibody levels are observed especially IgA and IgM levels.
Stroke is sudden loss of blood circulation to an area of the brain resulting in a corresponding loss of neurologic function. Types:
· Ischemic (70-80% of cases):
- Atherosclerotic (thrombotic): most common type
· Intracerebral hemorrhage
· Subarachnoid hemorrhage
· Lacunar stroke
Atherosclerotic (thrombotic) stroke: Ischemic type of stroke is commonly caused by platelet thrombosis that develops over a disrupted atherosclerotic plaque. Characteristics: it usually develops at the periphery of the cerebral cortex, swelling of brain, loss of dermacation between gray and white matter, breakdown of myelin, pale infarct; Cystic area develops after 10days to 3weeks due to liquefactive necrosis.
Tetanus is defined as the sustained contraction of muscle due to repeated stimuli with high frequency. When the multiple stimuli are applied at a higher frequency in such a way that the successive stimuli fall during contraction period (period of shortening) of previous twitch, the muscle remains in state of tetanus. While increasing the frequency, fusion of contractions increases every time and finally complete tetanus occurs. Holotetanus – complete tetanus.
When the frequency of stimuli is not sufficient to cause tetanus, the fusion of contractions is not complete and then we have – incomplete/partial/waved tetanus. This occurs (i.e. the next stimuli occurs) during the period of relaxation.
Niemann-pick disease is a lipid storage disease characterised by accumulation of sphingomyelin in lysosomes. Occurs due to dysfunction of sphingophospholipid metabolism. In Type A and B there is a deficiency of the enzyme sphingomyelinase an enzyme necessary for the formation sphingomyelins.
Glucose-6-phosphatase is deficient in von gierke’s disease.
Barr body is an inactive X-chromosome. A normal female has one barr body XX, a normal male has no barr body XY.
Trisomy X – XXX (only one X is active in a female; therefore, 2 barr bodies)
Klinefelter – XXY (one barr body)
Turner’s – XO (no barr body)
46 XX is a normal female sex chromosome. All other options are karyotypes for male patients.
Taeniasis is a disease caused by taenia solium ( 7-112 uterine branches) or taenia saginata (17-35).
Diphyllobothriasis is caused by diphyllobothrium latum. In opisthorchiasis, we see the presence of small/operculate eggs.
Cytochrome c oxidase catalyses the last reaction in the electron transport chain. It receives an electron from each of four cytochrome c molecules, and transfers them to one dioxygen molecule, converting the molecular oxygen to two molecules of water. Cytochrome P450 oxidises xenobiotics, steroids and proteins.
Substances absorbed into the bloodstream from the intestine pass through the liver, where toxins are normally removed. Many of these toxins (such as ammonia) are normal breakdown products of the digestion of protein. In hepatic encephalopathy (hepatic coma), toxins are not removed because liver function is impaired. Ammonia is produced by amino acid metabolism and intestinal urease-positive bacteria. In physiological conditions, it is mostly present as ammonium (NH4+) in serum. The urea or ornithine cycle, which is fully expressed in the liver exclusively, serves to converts NH4+ to urea prior to renal excretion and to maintain low serum concentrations. In hepatic coma, when the liver cannot remove toxins and urea cycle is not functional, all this occurs:
NH3 + α-ketoglutarate → Glutamate
α-ketoglutarate is used up which leads to:
· ↑glutamate → ↑GABA (inhibitory neurotransmitter)
· Inhibition of citric acid cycle/tricarboxylic acid cycle; this causes impairment of ATP formation.
· Inhibition of metabolism of amino acids (impairment of transamination reactions).
NH3 + Glutamate → Glutamine
Glutamine is an amide of glutamic acid which provides a non-toxic storage and transport form of ammonia (NH3). Ammonia increase synthesis of glutamine in brain. Accumulation of glutamine in brain results in elevation of osmotic pressure in nervous cells leading to brain edema.
NH3 + H+ → NH4+
In blood ammonia (NH3) is represented as ammonium ion (NH4+). Accumulation of ammonium ion impairs transport of ions (Na+, K+) through cell membranes and failure of transmission of nerve impulse.
Urea cycle takes place exclusively in the liver, so in hepatic coma, urea level is low. Glutamine toxicity in brain is dependent on increased ammonia concentration.
Bilirubin toxicity will most likely be related to increase hemolysis, which is not the case in this question. Histamine is a biogenic amine produced from the amino acid histidine.
Linea terminalis = pectineal line (pubis) + Arcuate line + sacral promontory + superior margin of pubic symphysis. Boundary between the abdominal and pelvic cavity.
Linea semilunaris found on the lateral margin of rectus abdominis.
Linea arcuata: the region on the posterior layer, where aponeuroses end and continue into the anterior layer. Part of linea terminalis anteriorly.
RBC (erythrocytes): Men
4.2 – 5.2 X 1012/L
5.5 X 1012/L (↑)
3.7 – 4.7 X 1012/L
135 – 165g/L
120 – 140g/L
4.0 – 9.0 X 109/L
7 X 109/L (normal)
0 - 1%
0.5 – 5%
47 – 72%
19 – 37%
3 – 11%
This results indicates erythropoiesis i.e. synthesis of RBCs.
Lordosis is an exaggerated anterior curvature of the spine, most often lumbar. Lordosis is present in the cervical and lumbar regions (cervical and lumbar lordoses). The intervertebral synchondroses and symphyses are reinforced by the longitudinal ligaments which run along the entire spine.
· Anterior longitudinal ligament is a band which extends from the atlas to the pelvic surface of the hip bone along the anterior surfaces of the vertebral bodies.
· Posterior longitudinal ligament runs along the posterior surface of the vertebral bodies (in the vertebral canal).
Therefore, a damage to the anterior longitudinal ligament can induce lordosis.
Clostridium perfringens is a gram positive, spore forming bacillus cultivated on blood glucose agar. It causes food poisoning. Staphylococcus aureus is a gram positive spore forming bacteria (cocci) arranged in clusters, ferments mannitol and lecithinase positive.
P-wave indicates Atrial depolarization, QRS complex- ventricular depolarization, T-wave ventricular repolarization.
Abscess is a cavity containing purulent exudate. Sequestrum- fragments of dead tissue, which can be autolized. Gangrene is an area of ischemic necrosis.
Erythrocytes possess no nucleus, the main metabolic pathway in these cells is the pentose phosphate pathway in which NADPH is produced in the process. In lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species are activated (bad oxygen that kills cells). NADPH serves as the ultimate donor of reductive power for the large majority of ROS-detoxifying enzymes thereby counteracting lipid peroxidation.
In the female lesser pelvis, there are two excavations: the rectouterine pouch and vesicouterine pouch. The rectouterine pouch (pouch of douglas) is an intraperitoneal space between the uterus and the rectum. It is a common place for pelvic fluid or blood from hemorrhage to collect after surgery, or rupture of any etiology.
The vesicouterine pouch is between the urinary bladder anteriorly and the uterus posteriorly. It is a shallower recess (pouch).
· Neuroparalytic arterial hyperemia is caused by damage or blockage of α-adrenoreceptors (sympathetic nervous system). It is characterized by reduction or absence (paralysis) of the sympathetic nervous system effects on the walls of the arteries and arterioles.
· Neurotonic arterial hyperemia is caused by activation of parasympathetic nervous system; irritation of vascular dilators part of vascular center (CNS) or inhibition of vascular – constrictor part of this center (vasomotor center of CNS); M-cholinoreceptors; H2-histaminereceptors. It is characterized by predominance of the parasympathetic nervous system effects on arterial vascular walls.
Undifferentiated small cell carcinoma is composed of centrally located small cell lymphocyte-like ( a little larger) with oval hyperchromatic nuclei. In adenocarcinoma, there is a predominance of glandular structure. Squamous cell carcinoma are composed of relatively large cells either keratinizing or non keratinizing.
The retina contains Rods and Cones cells. The rods are for twilight vision while the cones are for coloured vision.
The tetracyclines (minocycline, doxycycline) are broad spectrum bacteriostatic antibiotics.
Mechanism of action: entry of these drugs into susceptible organisms is mediated both by passive diffusion and by an energy-dependent transport protein mechanism. The drug binds reversibly to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thereby blocking access of the amino acyl-tRNA to the mRNA-ribosome complex at the acceptor site.
Taking these drugs concomitantly with diary foods in the diet decreases absorption due to the formation of non-absorbable chelates of the tetracyclines with calcium ions. Non-absorbable chelates are also formed with other divalent and trivalent cations (e.g. those found in magnesium and aluminum antacids and in Iron preparations).
· Discolouration and hypoplasia of the teeth in growing children
· Phototoxicity: such as sunburn
· Gastric discomfort
Reflex apnea is an involuntary stop in Breathing as a result of gas or vapor irritation. It is observed in divers as a result of water irritating the nasal mucosa.
Hyperpnea is an increase in depth and rate of breathing and is seen in exercise.
Formyl-methionyl trna is used for the initiation of protein synthesis in bacteria ( Procaryotes) It is not used for protein synthesis in eukaryotes . In gene expression, Translation is a process that occurs in ribosomes present in the endoplasmic reticulum in which proteins are synthesized from RNA molecules. It occurs after replication and has three phases: initiation, elongation and termination.
Initiation- is the first step in cancer development. Initiators, if not already reactive with DNA, are altered via drug-metabolizing enzymes in the body and are then able to cause changes in DNA (mutations).
Promotion- Once a cell has been mutated by an initiator, it is susceptible to the effects of promoters. These compounds promote the proliferation of the cell, giving rise to a large number of daughter cells containing the mutation created by the initiator.
Progression- refers to the stepwise transformation of a benign tumor to a neoplasm and to malignancy. An increased growth rate, invasiveness, metastasis and an alteration in biochemistry and morphology are present in this phase.
The areas of the skin covered with clothes has a higher temperature because the convection current does not have direct access to the skin in that area as compared to the exposed area of the skin.
Proserin is an anticholinesterase drug. It decreases the breakdown of acetylcholine
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors - Captopril, enalapril.
Calcium blockers- verapamil.
Muscarinic antagonist- atropine.
Type IIa (familial hyperlipoproteinemia: ↑LDL and cholesterol. Autosomal dominant; due to absent or defective LDL receptors.
Type I: ↑chylomicrons, triacylglycerol (TAG), cholesterol. Autosomal recessive; due to lipoprotein lipase deficiency or altered apolipoprotein C-II.
Type IV: ↑very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and TAG. Autosomal dominant; due to hepatic overproduction of VLDL.
Type IIb: similar to Type IIa, except that VLDL is also increased and VLDL is normal for IIa.
Beta lactam is a group of antibiotics that destroy bacterial cell wall. They do this by inhibiting Transpeptidase enzyme ( responsible for cross linking of fibres in bacterial cell wall). To this group belong Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Monobactam and carbapenems.
Depolarization- sodium influx to the cell. Repolarization- Potassium efflux. A change in the resting membrane potential from -85mv to -90mv indicates repolarization.
It is anaphylactic because of the relatively short time it took to manifest the symptoms. It is local because, it affects just the trunk and distal part of limb. Systemic will have systemic effects like anxiety, loss of consciousness, shock, difficulty in breathing.
Type I Hypersensitivity reaction (HSR); anaphylactic and atopic: free antigen cross-links IgE on presensitized (i.e. exposed to the antigen before) mast cells and basophils, triggering immediate release of vasoactive amines that act at postcapillary venules (i.e. histamine). Reaction develops rapidly after antigen exposure because of preformed antibody from first exposure. IgE is the main immunoglobulin involved in type I HSR. Type I: uses IgE and IgG4
In viral hepatitis, there is generalized liver dysfunction involving uptake and conjugation of unconjugated bilirubin, secretion of conjugated bilirubin into bile ducts, and recycling of urobilinogen. Alanine transaminase (ALT) and Aspartate transaminase (AST) are increased (↑), but ALT is higher than AST and there is a slight ↑ in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and ɣ-glutamyltransferase (GGT).
ALT is a specific enzyme for liver necrosis; present in the cytosol. ALT>AST: viral hepatitis.
AST is present in the mitochondria. Alcohol damages mitochondria AST>ALT indicates alcoholic hepatitis
Salbutamol belongs to the group of Beta 2 agonists. It causes Bronchodilation. Adrenaline acts on alpha receptors. Atropine is a muscarinic blocker.
spirometry is a test for pulmonary function. It measures;
Vital Capacity: The volume of air breathed out after maximum inhalation.
Forced vital capacity And forced Expiratory volume etc
N/B Functional residual capacity- amount of air in the lungs after respiration cannot be measured using a spirometer.
Chagas disease ( american trypanosomiasis) is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi which is transmitted by Triatomine bug. Mosquito transmits malaria. Tsetse flies transmit african trypanosomiasis.
Embolism is occlusion of a vessel by material travelling in the circulation.
* Fat/Adipose embolism: obstruction of arterioles and capillaries by fat globules constitutes fat embolism. It may occur following severe fracture trauma to bones, inflammation of bones and soft tissues, fatty liver
* Thromboembolism: a detached thrombus or part of thrombus which may arise in the arterial or venous circulation.
* Gas embolism: two main forms of gas embolism are air embolism and decompression sickness. Air embolism is usually due to accidental pumping of air into the venous circulation during intravenous (IV) injection or transfusion ( bubble – air escaped).
Tissue embolism: fragments of tissue.
Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP, or thiamine diphosphate, TDP) is the active form of the vitamin thiamine. TPP is an important cofactor that acts catalytically in the decarboxylation of α-keto acids and the transketolase reaction.
Histologically, the umbilical cord contains two arteries and one vein. It contains wharton’s jelly which is a gelatinous substance found within.
Volutin granules are storage granules found inside the cytoplasm, they are found in Corynebacterium diphtheriae when stained with Neisser/Leffler’s method and are key points in diagnosis.
Parasympathetic nervous system when stimulated leads to: a decrease in blood pressure, heart rate and breathing rate, mydriasis, increase in GIT functions etc
Sympathetic activation : an increase in heart rate, blood pressure and breathing rate, miosis and decrease in GIT activities.
Semi dominance ( incomplete dominance) is seen when an allele ( a variant) partially dominates the other as seen in the heterozygous case. Complete dominance is seen in the homozygous case. Complementarity is seen when two genes contribute in a certain characteristic. Polymery is when two or more genes affect one phenotype.
Liberins and statins are groups of hormones released from the hypothalamus that control the release of stimulating hormone from the pituitary gland. Eg, Corticoliberin stimulates the release of Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary gland (adenohypophysis). ACTH then controls the release of adrenal cortex hormones.
This patient presents with glycosuria and hypoglycemia which indicates that glucose is being filtered out. Pathology arises from the renal corpuscle. Eg, Glomerulonephritis.
xanthomatosis is characterised by the deposition of cholesterol rich contents in various parts of the body eg. skin. It is related to familial hypercholesterolemia in which there is increased LDL levels.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone is a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland ( adenohypophysis). It stimulates the production of hormones from the adrenal cortex.
Blood group O(I): no antigens, therefore no agglutination.
Blood group A(II): A antigen, agglutinate with blood group B(III) and O(I).
Blood group B(III): B antigen, agglutinate with blood group A(II) and O(I).
Blood group AB(IV): A and B antigen, agglutinate with all blood groups. No antibody.
Blood group name is determined by the antigen present on RBC, but the patient has an opposite antibody. So whenever, the antibody corresponds to the antigen, there is agglutination. Since O does not have any antigen, no agglutination can occur.
In chronic hepatitis (i.e. relatively prolonged course of inflammation of the liver), the protein-synthetic function of the liver is impaired. Meaning, there is a marked decrease of clotting factors which results in uncontrolled and protracted hemorrhage.
In high grounds ( mountains), there is a decrease in partial pressure of O2, this activates chemoreceptors found on the aortic arch and carotid sinus which stimulates an increase in depth and rate of breathing as well as heart rate.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a molecular biology laboratory procedure used t amplify a desired fragment of DNA. Useful as a diagnostic tool (e.g. HIV, herpes encephalitis).
Nucleic acid-based (DNA or RNA based) tests are highly specific, quite sensitive (especially the amplification tests) and mush faster than culturing the organism. Nucleic acid amplification tests utilize the PCR or other amplifying processes to increase the number of specific DNA or RNA molecules so the sensitivity of the test is significantly higher than that of unamplified tests. Steps in PCR includes: denaturation; annealing and elongation. These steps are repeated multiple times for DNA sequence amplification.
Extrasystole is the premature contraction (an extra contraction) of the heart before its normal contraction. In other words, it is an extra contraction of the heart before its normal contraction. It is caused by an ectopic focus (discharge of an impulse from any part of the heart other than the Sinoatrial node).
Bradycardia: ↓heart rate; Tachycardia: ↑heart rate; Flutter: rapid heart contractions; Fibrillation: very rapid heart contractions. (In all this, there is no extra heart contraction, we just have faster contractions).
Phenazepam is a tranquilizer while dopamine is a neurotransmitter produced in the substantia nigra in the brain.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis and their side effects include:
Rifampicin- red urine and body fluids
Isoniazid- neuritis ie, numbness of feet etc
Pyrazinamide- gout, liver toxicity
Ethambutol- optic neuritis and kidney related issues
Isoniazid and rifampicin are the most active anti-tuberculosis drugs.
Drugs are firstly given intracutaneously and observed for few minutes to see if there be any reaction ( formation of a bleb). This is to confirm that the patient isn't allergic to the drug to be administered.
Repeated vomiting led to the accumulation of bicarbonates which causes alkalosis. To correct this, the body will have to decrease pulmonary ventilation ie, reduce O2 amount and increase CO2 amount in circulation leading to the accumulation of carbonic acid (acidosis), compensating the earlier state.
Wiskott aldrich syndrome is an X-linked recessive disorder characterised by eczema, thrombocytopenia and low level of IgM immunoglobulin.
Chediak Higashi disease is a disorder in phagocytosis leading to recurrent pyogenic infections, albinism and peripheral neuropathy.
In severe combined immunodeficiency, both B and T cells are deficient.
Neuroparalytic form is seen in Sympathectomy (cutting) of the α adrenergic fibres and nerves. Neurotonic is seen in stimulation ( increased tone) of these fibres.
Dark blood indicates Venous blood, bright red- arterial. The anterior cervical region is the Area of the neck bounded by the mandible, anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, and the anterior midline of the neck. The anterior jugular vein lies here.
The petrous minor nerve supplies the parotid gland, the petrous major nerve supplies the submandibular and sublingual glands.
An autoinfection is one that is caused by the normal bacteria flora present in our body. An Exogenous infection is caused by microorganisms from our environment. In co-infection, the individual has two seperate infections eg TB and typhoid. A mixed infection is one which is caused by many microorganisms. A superinfection is an infection imposed while another infection is in a period of treatment