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‘Bronzed skin’ indicates hyperpigmentation, it is one of the symptoms of addison’s disease. Melanocyte stimulating hormones are released from cells of the pars intermedia in the anterior pituitary gland. They stimulate melanocytes to produce more melanin leading to increased pigmentation.
Cholera is caused by Vibrio cholera which is a gram-negative comma shaped bacteria. It is a facultative anaerobe. Its growth medium is 1% alkaline peptone water.
The saliva contains lysozyme which has bactericidal effect ( kills bacteria).
Dithylinum is a muscle relaxant. Its action in the body is prolonged when the enzyme Pseudocholinesterase/ Butyrylcholinesterase is absent. This enzyme breakdown drugs with choline ester bonds.
The Thyroid gland controls the body’s basal metabolic. Histologically, it is made up of follicles, follicular and parafollicular cells. These cells help secrete Triiodothyronine T3, thyroxine T4 and calcitonin.T3 and T4 control basal metabolic rate while calcitonin increases bone calcium level. The Golgi apparatus are vesicles present in the cytoplasm, they take part in secretion and intracellular transport. Ribosomes are for synthesis of protein, mitochondria produce ATP.
Endometrial cystic glandular hyperplasia is characterised by large cystically dilated glands of different sizes found on the wall of the endometrium.
In atypical endometrial hyperplasia,there is presence of atypical cells in the hyperplastic endometrium. Polyps are fingerlike structures that appear as a result of chronic irritation.
Initiation- is the first step in cancer development. Initiators, if not already reactive with DNA, are altered via drug-metabolizing enzymes in the body and are then able to cause changes in DNA (mutations).
Promotion- Once a cell has been mutated by an initiator, it is susceptible to the effects of promoters. These compounds promote the proliferation of the cell, giving rise to a large number of daughter cells containing the mutation created by the initiator.
Progression- refers to the stepwise transformation of a benign tumor to a neoplasm and to malignancy. An increased growth rate, invasiveness, metastasis and an alteration in biochemistry and morphology are present in this phase.
The right lung is made up of 3 lobes ( superior, middle and inferior); the left is has 2 (superior and inferior). The middle lobe of the right lung has only 2 segments (medial and lateral).
Unconditioned reflexes refers to inborn reflexes ie, reflexes not learned eg. accommodation reflex. Conditioned reflexes are learned over time ( through training).
Sympathetic nervous system is a state of fight/flight/action. Parasympathetic is a state of rest.
A trained athlete in a race indicates conditioned sympathetic reflex.
Surfactant is a substance produced by alveolar type II cells. They prevent alveolar tendency to recede (collapse). Alveolar macrophages are responsible for engulfing forein bodies in lungs eg, dust.
The Trigeminal nerve, cranial nerve V is a mixed nerve. It gives off three branches:
Opthalmic nerve - sensory nerve, leaves the skull through the superior orbital fissure.
Maxillary nerve- sensory nerve, leaves the skull through through the foramen rotundum
Mandibular nerve- mixed nerve, passes through the foramen ovale. Innervates the frontal ⅔ of the tongue for thermal sensation.
Stercobillin is simply a bile pigment gotten at the end of heme breakdown. It is responsible for the brown color of faeces. A Negative reaction indicates absence of stercobilin ie, a pale faeces.
Jaundice is a disease characterised by the yellow discolouration of skin and mucous membrane due to a build up in bilirubin levels in the blood. Three types exist;
Prehepatic/ hemolytic - occurs due to increased breakdown of RBC eg, hemolytic disease of newborn. There is an increased level of unconjugated bilirubin. Stool and urine colour are normal.
Hepatic/ parenchymatous - Occurs in diseases affecting the liver parenchyma eg, cirrhosis, hepatitis etc. There is an increase in both unconjugated and conjugated bilirubin. Urine appears dark and faeces pale.
Post hepatic/ obstructive - pathology lies after conjugation of bilirubin and is caused by obstruction of biliary path. Urine is dark and faeces pale. Seen in disease such as cholelithiasis.
Bronchiectasis is a chronic necrotizing infection of the bronchi and bronchioles characterized by an abnormal dilation of the airways. Histologically we see a chronic inflammation of the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles associated with desquamation of lining epithelium.
Chronic bronchitis presents with a lot of goblet cells filled with mucus.
In lung abscess, we see cavities containing exudates.
Pleurocentesis is a procedure used to remove air or fluid from the pleural space. Collection of exudate from this process indicates an increase in surrounding vessels permeability.
Gout is a disease caused by increased production and accumulation of uric acid. Allopurinol is a drug indicated for its treatment. It competitively inhibits the receptors of Xanthine oxidase( an enzyme responsible for the conversion of hypoxanthine and xanthine into Uric acid).
Atropine is a muscarinic blocker, It causes mydriasis (pupil dilation), increased heart and breathing rate. Morphine is an opioid analgesic indicated in pain syndrome etc. Aminazine is an antipsychotic drug.
The parathyroid glands are four structures found on the edges of the thyroid gland. They can be damaged in thyroid surgeries. Histologically, they contain Chief and oxyntic cells; The chief cells are responsible for the secretion of Parathormone which increases blood level calcium. In its absence, calcium level in the blood becomes low leading to symptoms such as convulsions, spasms etc.
Adrenocortical hyperfunction refers to Cushing’s disease. It presents with the following symptoms; moon face, hirsutism ( male pattern hair growth), buffalo hump, abdominal striae etc. N/B The adrenal cortex is made of 3 zones namely;
Zona Glomerulosa: Mineralocorticoids eg. aldosterone
Zona Fasciculata; Glucocorticoids
Zona Reticularis: Androgens
A breast cancer is likely to spread through the axillary nodes.
Tachyphylaxis refers to the gradual reduction in effectiveness of a drug on continuous intake.
Idiosyncrasy refers to an adverse/changed effect of a drug in a person ie, different from the normal effect of this drug. It is most times observed in absence of certain enzymes.
Cumulation (material form) is observed in continuous intake of drugs such as digoxin.
Hepatitis A and E are transmitted through fecal-oral route, Hepatitis B and C are transmitted through blood and other body fluids. Hepatitis D depends on hepatitis B.
Parkinson’s disease is a disorder of the nervous system caused by decreased synthesis in dopamine ( a neurotransmitter). Dopamine is produced from the substantia nigra ( black substance) found in the brain. Symptoms include; tremors, stiffness in movements etc. Levodopa is used in treatment.
Serous inflammation- marked by a thin/ turbid fluid production eg, boil,blisters
Diphtheric form contains grey-like substance, fibrin which bleeds when removed.
Catarrhal/ suppurative form contains thick mucus production.
Anaerobic glycolysis (breakdown of glucose in the absence of oxygen) mostly takes place during physical activities eg, exercise. During this process, 2 ATP (per glucose molecule) and Lactic acid are formed. An accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles causes intense pain.
The Iris/pupil sphincter muscle is responsible for the construction of the pupil, the dilator muscle is responsible for dilation. The ciliary muscle controls accommodation while the 4 rectus muscles ( superior, inferior, lateral and medial) control eyeball movements.
Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterised by high levels of glucose in the blood . Tissue uptake of glucose is impaired this leads the body to search for an alternative source of energy, increasing the breakdown of other metabolites such as Fats. Triglyceride lipase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fats.
The Pancreas is an organ that has both exocrine and endocrine function. The endocrine part is carried out by a group of cells located in an area called the Islets of Langerhans. These cells include:
Alpha cells- produce glucagon
Beta cells- produce Insulin
Delta cells- produce somatostatin
Glibenclamide is a drug indicated in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. It stimulates Beta cells to produce Insulin.
Sympathetic nervous system is a branch of the autonomic nervous system. When stimulated it causes; vasoconstriction, pupil dilation, increased heart and breathing rate etc.
Closure of 1⁄3rd of arterial opening by atherosclerotic plaques indicates diffuse cardiosclerosis. A closure of 2⁄3rd or more by athrosclerotic plaques and presence of an area of infarct refers to the morphological description for myocardial infarction.
In this case, respiratory volume refers to the Tidal volume which is the amount of air inhaled or exhaled at one cycle. Vital capacity of the lungs is the maximum amount of air exhaled after maximum inhalation.
Inspiratory reserve volume is the maximum amount of air that can be forcibly inhaled after normal inspiration (tidal volume). Expiratory reserve volume is the maximum amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after normal expiration (tidal volume).
Edemas are caused by i) Increase in hydrostatic pressure
ii) decrease in oncotic pressure ( maintained mainly by Albumins)
iii) change in osmotic pressure
Albumins are the major proteins that maintain oncotic pressure.
Hypertension is a multifactorial disease that is characterised by increased blood pressure. Essential hypertension is caused by increased peripheral resistance.The increased peripheral resistance in established hypertension is mainly attributable to structural narrowing of small arteries and arterioles, although a reduction in the number or density of capillaries may also contribute.
Histologically,The Proximal part of nephron has cuboidal epithelium with brush borers(ciliated lining)
Distal part has just cuboidal epithelium with no brush border.
Isometric contraction is a type of muscle contraction in which muscle length doesn’t change. In this case, the individual is attempting to lift a load beyond his strength which implies no change of muscle length despite any effort applied.Isotonic contractions maintain constant tension in the muscle as the muscle changes length. This can occur only when a muscle’s maximal force of contraction exceeds the total load on the muscle.
Organic nitrates eg, Nitroglycerin are drugs which cause vasodilation. They are indicated in diseases such as Angina pectoris. An overdose of this group of drugs can result in cyanosis, B.p drop, tachycardia etc.
During transcription, the entire gene is copied into a pre-mRNA, which includes exons and introns.An exon is the portion of a gene that codes for amino acids.The parts of the gene sequence that are expressed in the protein are called exons, because they are expressed, while the parts of the gene sequence that are not expressed in the protein are called introns. The sequence Exon-intron-exon corresponds to a precursor mRNA.
Jaundice is a disease characterised by the yellow discolouration of skin and mucous membrane due to a build up in bilirubin levels in the blood. Three types exist;
Prehepatic/ hemolytic - occurs due to increased breakdown of RBC eg, hemolytic disease of the newborn. There is an increased level of unconjugated bilirubin. Stool and urine colour are normal.
Pyelonephritis is a renal disorder affecting tubules, interstitium and renal pelvis. In the acute form, the kidneys show variable small yellowish areas surrounded with a hemorrhagic zone. Nephrolithiasis refers to kidney stones. Acute glomerulonephritis is characterised by inflammatory changes in the glomeruli.
Deletion- removal of a chromosome.
Aneuploidy- abnormal set of chromosomes
Inversion- rearrangement of chromosomes
Translocation- transfer of an arm of a chromosome to another.
The dorsal root of the spinal cord is responsible for transmitting sensory information. The sensory fibres enter the spinal cord through the dorsal root. The ventral root is responsible for motor actions. The motor fibres exit the spinal cord through the ventral root.
Anatoxin also known as toxoids are toxins which toxicity have been suppressed after being treated by a chemical. Its immunogenic properties are still preserved as they are used to generate an immune response against harmful toxins eg, diphtheria
Antitoxic serum are artificial antibodies used in the treatment of diphtheria. Inactivated vaccines are used in cases such as influenza, typhoid.
In neutrophilic leukocytosis with regenerative shift, immature, blast cells are more. This indicates an increase in leukopoiesis (generation of new white blood cells).
A reflex arc is a neural path that controls a reflex action. It consists of receptors, sensory neurons, motor neurons and effector organs. Absence of reflex on the right leg occured due to a defect in the conduction pathway ie, receptors and neurons.
Systemic lupus erythematosus ( characterised by malar/ butterfly rash) is an autoimmune disease classified under type 3 hypersensitivity ( immune complex). Triggered by environmental issues, the body quickly produces antibodies against these antigens and its own tissues forming an antigen-antibody complex. These complexes are deposited in the kidneys which leads to an inflammatory reaction in the glomerulus ( glomerulonephritis) thereby, destroying the nephron.
Intense burning retrosternal pain that radiates to the left arm indicates angina pectoris. It is caused by vasospasm (constriction) of coronary vessels. In the above question, patient was in a tense situation due to the tax audit. This led to the release of catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline) which are potent vasoconstrictors.
Rhesus incompatibility is observed when the mother possesses an Rh -ve blood group and the developing child has an Rh +ve blood group (most likely gotten from the father).
Rhesus incompatibility is observed when the mother possesses an Rh -ve blood group and the developing child has an Rh +ve blood group (most likely gotten from the father). The child’s II (A) blood group is also inherited from the father.
Cushing’s disease refers to a hyper function of the adrenal cortex. N/B The adrenal cortex is made of 3 zones namely;
There is an increased secretion of glucocorticoids, cortisol which elevate blood glucose level by activating gluconeogenesis.
Starvation is simply the deficiency of food leading to absence of energy. In incomplete starvation, there is an intake of water. Complete starvation has to do with total absence of food and water. In esophageal stenosis, there is a narrowing of the esophagus making swallowing difficult but water and liquid products are still able to pass through.
Silicosis is a lung disease that occurs due to inhalation of dust containing silica. Nodular silicosis is characterised by numerous round or oval sclerotic foci. The diffuse form covers a larger area of the lungs.
Ectoderm- brain, epidermis of skin and pigment cells (melanocytes).
Mesoderm- Dermis, smooth and skeletal muscles
Hydroxylation is a chemical process in which a hydroxyl group -OH is added, it is facilitated by the enzyme hydroxylases. Decarboxylation is the removal of a carboxyl group thereby releasing CO2. Phosphorylation is an addition of phosphoryl group. Deamination is the removal of an amine group.
Bacillus anthracis is a gram positive, spore forming, rod shaped bacteria that causes Anthrax. For diagnosis of anthrax, Ascoli’s thermo precipitation test is used. Burri Gin’s method is used for encapsulated organisms ie, organisms that have capsules.
Celecoxib is a selective COX-2 non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for the treatment of diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis etc. Prednisolone is a glucocorticoid, has anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive effects.
Dobutamne is a cardiotonic, a beta 1 agonist with positive inotropic effect (increases force and speed of contraction). It is proposed as a cardiotonic after myocardial infarction or open heart surgery.
Cross adaptation is seen when an exposure to a particular stressor/stimulus ( in this case exercise) provides protection/tolerance from another stimulus.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors are drugs used in patients with depression. They increase the secretion of biogenic amines ( by decarboxylation) ie, serotonin, dopamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. It has no effect on the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
The biceps muscles of the shoulder are located at the anterior surface in the lower one-third and is responsible for flexion. The Triceps muscles of the shoulder are located on the posterior surface in the lower one-third and are responsible for Extension.
Furosemide is a loop diuretic indicated in cerebral, pulmonary edema for forced diuresis. Spironolactone is a potassium sparing diuretic (keeps potassium in the system). Hydrochlorothiazide is a thiazide diuretic. Diuretics are substances that increase the excretion of water and salt from the body.
Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. An acid-fast bacilli. Ziehl neelsen stain is indicated for its staining procedure.
Diabetes insipidus is a disease characterised by excretion of large amounts of diluted urine (dehydration) accompanied by a feeling of thirst. The loss of water also makes the blood more concentrated than normal ie, high concentration of salts, glucose and other substances. This is called hyperosmolarity.
Before the application of BCG vaccine ( vaccination against tuberculosis), A skin test (mantoux test) is done. In this test, tuberculin is injected intradermally and the injected area is observed. A person who has been exposed to the bacteria is expected to mount an immune response in the skin containing the bacterial proteins. The reaction is read by measuring the diameter of induration. This test helps in determining individuals in need of BCG vaccination.
A sensory threshold is the level of strength a stimulus must reach to be detected. Resting membrane potential is the voltage around the cell membrane when the cell is in a quiet/resting state.
The three semicircular canals are found in the innermost part of the middle ear. They are part of the bony labyrinth. At each end, they have an ampulla. These canals detect angular acceleration of the head. The utricle and saccule respond to linear acceleration.
The facial nerve innervates the facial muscles and is responsible for facial expressions. The opthalmic, maxillary and mandibular nerves are branches of the trigeminal nerve.
Wohlfahrtia magnifica (wohlfahrt fly) is the causative agent of myiasis (Myiasis is the parasitic infestation of the body of a live animal by fly larvae (maggots) that grow inside the host while feeding on its tissue.
Vitamins such as B12, B9 and B6 help reduce homocysteine levels.Homocysteine is an amino acid made from a common dietary amino acid, methionine, that inflicts damage to the inner arterial lining (endothelium) and contributes to many diseases such as migraines, strokes, cardiovascular related diseases etc.
Histamine (a biogenic amine) is produced from the decarboxylation of histidine protein. Decarboxylation refers to the removal of a carboxyl group thereby releasing CO2.
Agglutination not occuring in standard serum B(III) indicates the blood group belongs to B(III).Blood is often grouped according to the ABO blood typing system. The 4 major blood types are;Type O(I),Type A(II),Type B(III),Type AB(IV).
type A blood can only receive types A and O blood.
type B blood,can only receive types B and O blood.
type AB blood,can receive types A, B, AB, and O blood. -universal recipient
type O blood,can only receive type O blood.
Rh+, you can receive Rh+ or Rh- blood.
Rh-, you can only receive Rh- blood.
Type O blood can be given to anyone with any blood type. That is why people with type O blood are called universal blood donors.
Digoxin is a cardiac glycoside used in the treatment of chronic heart failure. Side effects include dyspnea, extrasystole etc. Nitroglycerin is a vasodilator used in the treatment of angina. Drotaverine is an antispasmodic drug. Anaprillin is a non selective Beta blocker.
Widal agglutination test is a diagnostic method used for the diagnosis of typhoid fever ( enteric fever) which is marked by the formation of multiple ulcers, hemorrhages covered with grayish substances (fibrin) in the intestine.
An autosomal dominant inheritance is one that is present in all generations, affects both genders and doesn't need both parents to be affected for its expression. Y-linked disorders affects only males and is passed from father to son. X-linked disorders are passed from father to daughter or mother to any child.
Papillary carcinoma is one of the four main types of malignant tumours derived from thyroid follicle cell (the others include; follicular, medullary and anaplastic carcinoma). Papillary form is characterised by papillary structures varying in size, it metastasizes via lymphatics to nodes in the neck. Follicular form possess follicular structures and metastasizes via bloodstream to bone tissues. Medullary form originates from parafollicular cells or C cells.
Schistosomiasis are gotten from parasitic flatworms called schistosomes (blood flukes). On examination, these parasitic eggs contain terminal spikes.N/B Snails are the intermediate host, infection is gotten from the consumption of contaminated water. In Opisthorchiasis, the parasitic eggs are small, operculate. Fascioliasis is gotten from Fasciola hepatica.
Poliomyelitis is an infectious disease caused by the polio virus. For prevention and production of immunity against this virus, a live/attenuated vaccine is given orally.
Non keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma is composed of atypical squamous cells that penetrates underlying tissues. Papilloma is a benign tumor( no cellular atypia ) that originates from skin or mucous membrane, presents with a papillary surface.Adenomas are benign tumors starting in the epithelial tissue of a gland or gland-like structure.
An abscess is a cavity containing purulent exudates. Sequestrum is a fragment of dead tissues that can't be autolysed (destroyed) located among alive tissues.
Parkinson’s disease is a disorder of the nervous system caused by decreased synthesis in dopamine ( a neurotransmitter). Dopamine is produced from the substantia nigra ( black substance) found in the brain. Symptoms include; tremors, stiffness in movements etc. Levodopa is used in treatment, it stimulates dopamine synthesis.
Branches of the superior mesenteric artery supply the small intestine,caecum, ascending colon and a part of the transverse colon.Branches of the inferior mesenteric artery supply the remaining half of the transverse colon, the descending colon, sigmoid down to the rectum.
Ventilatory dysregulation - Morphine poisoning , Tetanus
Ventilatory obstruction - Bronchial asthma, COPD
Ventilatory restriction - silicosis, anthracosis etc.
In obstructive diseases, the forced expiratory volume(FEV) is reduced.
When HIV infects a cell, reverse transcriptase copies the viral single stranded RNA genome into a double-stranded viral DNA. This process is called reverse transcription.
Translation is a process that occurs in ribosomes present in the endoplasmic reticulum in which proteins are synthesized from RNA molecules. It occurs after replication and has three phases: initiation, elongation and termination.
In Transcription, DNA is copied into RNA by the help of RNA polymerase.
The retinal pigment epithelium are specialised cells located between the neurosensory cells (rods and cones) and the choroid capillaries (the vascular tunic of the eye). One major function is light absorption. Rods are for twilight vision while cones are for coloured vision.
In ornithine/urea cycle, Citrulline is converted into aspartate.
Pancreatic lipase also known as triglyceride lipase is an enzyme responsible for the breakdown(hydrolysis) of triglycerides into monoglycerides and free fatty acids. Bile lipase helps in the digestion of fats.
Chronic mineralocorticoid excess states in humans, is known to cause a fall in plasma concentrations of ionized Ca2+ and Mg2+ by increased urinary and fecal excretion of these ions. N/B The adrenal cortex is made of 3 zones namely;
Presence of Verocay bodies indicates a neurinoma which is a benign tumour that grows on the vestibulocochlear nerve (nerve for hearing and balancing) in the internal ear.
Intrinsic factor of Castle refers to glycoprotein produced by parietal cells in the gastric walls that enable the absorption of vitamin B12. Extrinsic factor refers to Vitamin B12- cobalamin.
Oxytocin is a hormone produced in the posterior pituitary gland. It is responsible for muscle contraction during labour(childbirth). Dinoprostone is a prostaglandin E2, it is used in pregnant women to relax the cervix muscles in preparation for labour. Dinoprost is a prostaglandin F2 alpha, it is used to induce arbortion in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy.
A change of membrane potential from -85 to -90 mV indicates repolarization. Depolarization- sodium influx to the cell. Repolarization- Potassium efflux.
Gaucher’s disease (glucocerebrosidase lipoidosis) is a genetic disorder in which glucocerebroside is accumulated in cells (monocytes, macrophages). It occurs as a result of the deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase. Neimann pick’s disease is a lysosomal storage disorder in which the body is not able to metabolise fats, sphingomyelin is accumulated in the lysosomes. It occurs due to the deficiency of the enzyme sphingomyelinase.
Neimann pick’s disease is a lysosomal storage disorder in which the body is not able to metabolise fats, sphingomyelin is accumulated in the lysosomes. It occurs due to the deficiency of the enzyme sphingomyelinase.
As a result of the action of the B-adrenergic blockers, bronchial spasm occurred. Myotropic antispasmodic also known as spasmolytics should be prescribed to relieve such symptoms examples include papaverine, tizanidine.
Prophase 1 is essentially the crossing over and recombination of genetic material between non sister chromatids - this results in the genetically unidentical, haploid daughter chromatid cells. In meiosis, it has 5stages ie, Leptotene, Zygotene, Pachytene, Diplotene and Diakinesis.Leptotene is the first of five stages of Prophase 1 and consists of the condensing of the already replicated chromosomes.Zygotene is the sub-stage where synapsis between homologous chromosomes begins. Crossing over occurs in pachytene phase. In diplotene, the two homologous chromosomes begin to migrate apart .Diakinesis is the final step of Prophase 1 and is the termination of the condensing of the chromosomes. The chromosomes are at their most condensed form during diakinesis.
P-wave indicates atrial excitation/depolarization. QRS indicates ventricular depolarization/excitation. T-wave indicates ventricular repolarization/relaxation.
Glomerulonephritis is a term used for a group of diseases involving the inflammation of the glomeruli. In the post infectious form of GN, it occurs after the infection of streptococcus pyogenes typically after a pharyngeal infenfection (1-3 weeks after).
Basedow’s disease (grave’s disease) or toxic diffuse goiter is an autoimmune disease of the thyroid. Morphologically is characterised by a change in epithelium from prismatic to cylindrical and presence of foamy colloid.
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is a destructive autoimmune thyroiditis leading to hypothyroidism. Characterised by lymphocyte infiltration of the stroma.
Vitamin A/ retinol / retinoic acid is responsible for good vision. Vitamin E- tocopherol is an antioxidant. Vitamin K is for blood coagulation.
Gout is a disease caused by increased production and accumulation of uric acid (hyperuricemia). Allopurinol is a drug indicated for its treatment. It competitively inhibits the receptors of Xanthine oxidase( an enzyme responsible for the conversion of hypoxanthine and xanthine into Uric acid). hyper azotemia refers to increased ammonia in the blood.
Semi dominance ( incomplete dominance) is seen when an allele ( a variant) partially dominates the other . Complete dominance is seen when an allele completely expresses its traits over another. Codominance occurs when the two alleles fully express themselves. Complementarity is seen when two genes contribute in a certain characteristic.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis and their side effects include:
Rifampicin- red urine and body fluids
Isoniazid- neuritis ie, numbness of feet etc
Pyrazinamide- gout, liver toxicity
Ethambutol- optic neuritis and kidney related issues
Isoniazid and rifampicin are the most active anti-tuberculosis drugs.
The round ligament of the liver stretches from the anterior abdominal wall (navel) to the inferior surface of the liver. The falciform ligament is found between the right and left lobe of the liver.
The papillary muscles are a group of muscles that make up the heart mass, they are located in the ventricles of the heart.They include; The anterolateral muscle and the posteromedial medial. The anterolateral muscle is supplied by the left anterior descending artery (ramus interventricularis anterior) and the obtuse marginal branch of the left circumflex artery. The posteromedial muscle is supplied by the posterior interventricular artery. N/B the posterior interventricular muscle is likely to rupture due to blood supply from only one source.
Yellow spots and streaks, white-yellow protruding plaques, cavities in aortic intima that turn orange when stained with sudan 3 all indicate fatty deposition in this organ which is as a result of metabolic disorder of cholesterol and cholesterol ethers.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA), which is found in high concentrations in the mucous membranes, particularly those lining the respiratory passages and gastrointestinal tract, as well as in saliva and tears.
Immunoglobulin G (IgG), the most abundant type of antibody, is found in all body fluids and protects against bacterial and viral infections.
Immunoglobulin M (IgM), which is found mainly in the blood and lymph fluid, is the first antibody to be made by the body to fight a new infection.
Immunoglobulin E (IgE), which is associated mainly with allergic reactions (when the immune system overreacts to environmental antigens such as pollen or pet dander). It is found in the lungs, skin, and mucous membranes.
Immunoglobulin D (IgD), which exists in small amounts in the blood, is the least understood antibody.
IgG and IgM are give post vaccination immunity.
Teratogens are substances that disturb the normal development of a fetus or embryo eg, alcohol, drugs, infections etc. In this case, the antiepileptic drug- sodium valproate had a teratogenic effect causing spina bifida ( a malformation of the spine).
Glaucoma is an optical disease that leads to the damage of the optic nerve, it is characterised by increased intraocular pressure. It is caused by either poor flow/drainage of intraocular fluid (aqueous humour) or its increased production/accumulation. Atropine is contraindicated in this pathology because it leads to an increase in intraocular pressure.
Diazepam is a tranquilizer, it possesses sedative effect and is used in epileptic seizures. Diprazin is a first generation antihistamine.
As a result of reduced renal blood flow, the juxtaglomerular cells release Renin which converts angiotensinogen (produced from the liver) into angiotensin I. Angiotensin I is acted upon by angiotensin converting enzyme (present in the lungs) and is converted to angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a potent vasoconstrictor and helps increase blood pressure. Angiotensin II stimulates the release of aldosterone from the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone is responsible for water and sodium reabsorption.
N/B Angiotensin II has the following effects on the brain -Firstly, it binds to the hypothalamus, stimulating thirst and increased water intake. Secondly, it stimulates the release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) by the posterior pituitary. ADH, or vasopressin, acts to increase water reabsorption in the kidney. Finally, angiotensin II decreases the sensitivity of the baroreceptor reflex.
Systemic lupus erythematosus ( characterised by malar/ butterfly rash) is an autoimmune disease classified under type 3 hypersensitivity ( immune complex). Triggered by environmental issues, the body quickly produces antibodies against these antigens and its own tissues forming an antigen-antibody complex. These complexes are deposited in the kidneys which leads to an inflammatory reaction in the glomerulus ( glomerulonephritis) thereby, destroying the nephron. N/B a ‘wire loop thickening’ of basement membrane describes the microscopic changes that occur in this process.
An autoinfection is one that is caused by the normal bacteria flora present in our body. An Exogenous infection is caused i by microorganisms from our environment. In co-infection, the individual has two seperate infections eg TB and typhoid. A mixed infection is one which is caused by many microorganisms. A superinfection is an infection imposed while another infection is in a period of treatment.
Opponens pollicis muscle is one of the three thenar muscles (abductor pollicis brevis and flexor pollicis brevis are the other). It is a small triangular muscle of the hand whose function is to oppose the thumb. N/B Abductor pollicis brevis abducts the thumb. Flexor pollicis brevis, which lies next to the abductor, flexes the thumb.