Decreased blood supply to the organs causes hypoxia that activates fibroblasts function. Volume of what elements is increased in this case?
Microspecimen of red bone marrow contains multiple capillaries through the walls of which mature blood cells penetrate into the bloodstream. What type of capillaries are these?
A tissue sample of benign tumor was studied under the electron microscope. A lot of small (15-20 nm) spherical bodies, consisting of 2 unequal subunits were detected. These are:
4. Patient with injured muscles of the lower extremities was admitted to the traumatological department. Due to what cells is repairative regeneration of the muscle fibers and restoration of the muscle function possible?
In the specimen of one of the parts of respiratory system a tubular organ was found. It has low epithelium, well developed muscular tunic, glands and cartilage are absent. Name this organ:
6. A lung of a premature infant is presented on electronic photomicrography of biopsy material. Collapse of the alveolar wall caused by the deficiency of surfactant was revealed. Dysfunction of what cells of the alveolar wall caused it?
7. After breathing with poisonous steams there is an increased quantity of slime in respiratory passages of a chemical production worker. What of respiratory tract epithelial cells participate in mucosa moistening?
8. The reason of occurrence of some diseases of an oral cavity is connected with structural peculiarities of its mucous membrane. What morphological attributes characterize these features?
9. There is the change of teeth at the 6-8 years old children: deciduous are replaced by permanent. What embryonic tissues are the sources of formation of permanent teeth tissues?
10. Oval and round organelles with double wall are seen at the electron micrograph. The outer membrane is smooth, the inner membrane folded into cristae contain enzyme ATPase synthetase. These are:
In course of indirect histogenesis of tubular bone tissue a plate is formed between epiphyseal and diaphyseal ossification centres that provides further lengthwise growth of bones. What structure is it?
An electron micrograph of a kidney fragment presents an afferent arteriole. Under its endothelium some big cells can be seen that contain secretory granules. What type of cells is it?
A patient complains of dryness of head skin, itching, fragility and loss of hair. After examination he was diagnosed with seborrhea. Disturbed activity of which cells caused this condition?
In course of an experiment a big number of stem cells of red bone marrow was in some way destructed. Regeneration of which cell populations in the loose connective tissue will be inhibited?
A pathological process in bronchi resulted in epithelium desquamation. What cells will regenerate bronchial epithelium?
A histological specimen of spleen shows a vessel with a wall consisting of endothelium and subendothelial layer, median membrane is absent, exterior membrane inosculates with the layers of spleen connective tissue. What vessel is it?
An electronic microphotograph shows a macrophagic cell with erythrocytes at different stages of differentiation located along its processes. This is the cell of the following organ:
A histological specimen presents a receptor zone of a sensoepithelial sense organ. Cells of this zone are placed upon the basal membrane and include the following types: external and internal receptor cells, external and internal phalangeal cell, stem cells, external limiting cells and external supporting cell. The described receptor zone belongs to the following sense organ:
19. A patient was admitted to the hospital with an asphyxia attack provoked by a spasm of smooth muscles of the respiratory tracts. This attack was mainly caused by alterations in the following parts of the airways:
In the pubertal period cells of the male sexual glands start producing the male sexual hormone testosterone that is responsible for formation of the secondary sexual characters. What cells of the male sexual glands produce this hormone?
A microspecimen of the submandibular salivary gland shows some basket-shaped cells concentrated around the acines and excretory ducts. These cells surround bases of the serous cells and are called myoepitheliocytes. These cells relate to the following tissue:
Examination of an ovary specimen stained by hematoxylin-eosine revealed a follicle in which follicular epithelium consisted of 1-2 layers of cubic cells. There was also a bright red membrane around the ovocyte. What follicle is it?
23. A scheme presents an exocrinous gland that has unbranched excretory duct with a terminal part in form of a saccule opening into the duct. How is this gland called according to the morphological classification of exocrinous glands?
24. A viral infection has damaged cells that form walls of bile capillaries. This stimulated conditions for inflow of bile into the blood of sinusoidal capillaries. What cells are damaged?
A histological specimen presents an artery. One of the membranes of its wall has flat cells lying on the basal membrane. What type of cells is it?
Study of fingerprints (dactylography) is used by criminalists for personal identification as well as for diagnostics of genetic abnormalities, particularly Dawn’s disease. What layer of skin determines individuality of fingerprints?
A histological specimen of a kidney shows a part of the distal tubule going between the afferent and efferent arteriole. The cells building the tubule wall have dense nuclei; basal membrane is absent. Such structural formation is called:
A histological specimen shows a blood vessel. Its inner coat is composed by endothelium, subendothelium and internal elastic membrane. The middle coat is enriched with smooth myocytes. Such morphological characteristics are typical for the following vessel:
The tunics of veins are not as distinct or well defined as the tunics of arteries. Veins are divided into 3 types:
* Small veins/venules: postcapillary and muscular venules
* Medium veins
* Large veins
· Large or elastic arteries
· Medium or muscular arteries
· Small arteries and arterioles
Muscular venules are distinguished from postcapillary venules by the presence of a tunica media. Postcapillary venules possess an endothelial lining with its basal lamina and pericytes. Postcapillary venules have no true tunica media.
· Tunica intima: consists of endothelium with its basal lamina
· Tunica media: smooth muscle cells
· Tunica adventitia: collagen fibers
A vessel without tunica media, also lack muscular tissue. Muscular artery, arteriole and artery of mixed type all have tunica media. Only capillaries and postcapillary venules lack tunica media.
Also a prominent internal elastic membrane helps to distinguish muscular arteries from elastic arteries and muscular venules.
29. While examining the oral cavity a stomatologist revealed inflammation of papillae on the border of the median and posterior third of the back of tongue. What papillae are inflamed?
Pyeloureterography X-ray photo showed a renal pelvis with minor calyces only (major calyces were absent). What form of urinary tracts of a kidney was revealed?
31. A sensitive neural ganglion consists of roundish neurocytes with one extension that divides into axon and dendrite at a some distance from the perikaryon. What are these cells called?
32. A histologic specimen shows an organ\'s parenchyma which is presented by lymphoid tissue making some lymph nodes. The nodes are located diffusively and contain a central artery. What anatomic formation might have such morphological structure?
33. Ultramicroscopical examination of \\\"dark\\\" hepatocyte population in the cell cytoplasm detected a developed granular endoplasmic reticulum. What function has this organella in these cells?
34. During postembryonal haemopoiesis in the red bone marrow the cells of one of the cellular differons demonstrate a gradual decrease in cytoplasmic basophilia as well as an increase in oxyphilia, the nucleus is being forced out. Such morphological changes are typical for the following haemopoiesis type:
A microspecimen of heart shows rectangular cells from 50 to 120mcm large with central position of nucleus, developed myofibrils. The cells are connected by intercalated discs. These cells are responsible for the following function:
A histological specimen of kidney shows a structure consisting of a glomerulus of fenestrated capillaries and a bilayer epithelial capsule. Specify this structure:
37. In an embryo the process of dorsal mesoderm segmentation and somite formation is disturbed. What part of skin will probably have developmental abnormalities?
An electron microphotography of a fragment of proper gastric gland shows a big irregular round-shaped cell. There are a lot of intracellular tubules and mitochondria in the cytoplasm. Specify this cell:
Electronic microphotography of pulmonary alveole’s wall presents a big cell. Its cytoplasm has a lot of mitochondria, developed Golgi apparatus, osmiophil lamellated corpuscles. What is the main function of this cell?
In course of a conditional experiment the development of mesenchyma cells was completely inhibited. Development of the following muscular tissue will be disturbed:
One of sections of central nervous system has layerwise arrangement of neurocytes. Among them there are cells of the following forms: stellate, fusiform, horizontal, pyramidal. What section of central nervous system is this structure typical for?
Study of the biopsy material of an embryo revealed a zone of developmental abnormality in a somite. The zone was located close to the endoderm and the notochord. What formations may have abnormal development in case of pregnancy continuation?
A specimen of pia mater includes a vessel whose wall doesn’t have the tunica media, the tunica externa is adherent to the surrounding tissues, the intima is composed of a basement membrane and endothelium. What vessel is it?
44. A histological specimen of the eyeball shows a biconvex structure connected to the ciliary body by the fibers of the Zinn’s zonule and covered with a transparent capsule. Name this structure:
45. A specimen shows an organ covered with the connective tissue capsule with trabeculae radiating inward the organ. There is also cortex containing some lymph nodules, and medullary cords made of lymphoid cells. What organ is under study?
A 13-year-old teenager underwent X-ray examination of the hip joint. Examination revealed a 3 mm wide radiolucent zone between the head and the shaft of femur. This situation should be evaluated as:
Alveolar space of the acinus was invaded by some bacteria which interacted with the surfactant. This led to the activation of the cells that are localized in the alveolar walls and on the surface. What cells are these?
Alveolar macrophages remove inhaled particulate matter from the air spaces and red blood cells (RBCs) from the septum of alveoli. They are unusual in that they function both in the connective tissue of the septum (alveolar wall) and in the air space of the alveolus (surface of alveolar cells). In air spaces they scavenge the surface to remove inhaled particulate matter (e.g. dust, pollen, pathogens), thus giving them one of their alternate names – Dust cells. They also phagocytose infectious organisms such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Other macrophages remain in the septal connective tissue, where, filled with accumulated phagocytized material, they may remain for much of an individual’s life. Thus, at autopsy, the lungs of urban dwellers as well as smokers will usually show many alveolar and septal macrophages filled with carbon particles, anthracotic pigment and birefringent needle-like particles of silica.
Type I alveolar cells (type I pneumocytes): the junctions formed between this cells form an effective barrier between the air space and the components of the septal wall. They are not capable of cell division. They make up 95% of the surface of the alveoli.
Type II alveolar cells: secretory cells; have lamellar bodies; progenitor cells for type I alveolar cells.
Clara cells: non-ciliated; low columnar/cuboidal cell with secretory granules. They secrete components of surfactant, degrade toxins and act as reserve cells.
Endothelial cells line blood vessels.
Negative environmental factors have caused the dysfunction of myosatellite cells. What function of the whole muscle fibre is likely to be changed in this case?
A specimen of a parenchymal organ shows poorly delineated hexagonal lobules surrounding a central vein, and the interlobular connective tissue contains embedded triads (an artery, a vein and an excretory duct). What organ is it?
As a result of a mechanical injury an over 10 cm long portion of a peripheral nerve was damaged. This led to the impairment of the upper limb activity. The patient was offered nerve transplantation. What glial cells will participate in regeneration and provide the trophism of the injured limb?
Human skin has a high breaking strength. It is known that the skin consists of epithelial tissue and two kinds of connective tissue. Which of the following tissues provides the skin strength?
A 22-year-old female student consulted a physician about fever up to 38oC, weakness, sore throat. Objectively: there is white coating of the tongue. What histological structures of the tongue are involved in the formation of this coating?
The receptors under study provide transfer of information to the cortex without thalamic involvement. Specify these receptors:
54. A microslide contains the preparation of a gland composed of several secretory saccule-shaped parts that open in the common excretory duct. What gland is it?
In the course of an experiment adenohypophysis of an animal has been removed. The resulting atrophy of thyroid gland and adrenal cortex has been caused by deficiency of the following hormone:
An electron micrograph shows a cell-to-cell adhesion consisting, in each cell, of an attachment plaque. The intercellular space is filled with electron-dense substance including transmembrane fibrillar structures. Specify this adhesion:
57. During the histological study of cortical shaft, basophilic cells with developed synthesis organelles can be seen on the bone surface under the layer of fibers. These cells take part in bone tissue regeneration. What shaft layer are they located in?
There are cortical and medullary substances separated by connective tissue layer in the endocrine gland specimen. Parenchyma cells make up three zones in cortical substance, with rounded masses in the superficial zone, parallel chords in the middle one, reticular structure of cell chords in the deep one. What gland is it?
Histological specimen of a 10-day human embryo represents 2 contacting sacs (amniotic and yolk sacs). Specify the structure that separates the amniotic cavity from the yolk sac:
An electron micrograph shows a cell of neural origin. The terminal portion of the cell dendrite has cylindrical shape and consists of 1000 closed membrane disks. What cell is represented by the micrograph?
61. A histologic specimen represents
an organ with walls comprised of mucous, submucous, fibrous-cartilaginous and adventitial membranes. Epithelium is multirowed and ciliated, muscular layer of mucous membrane is absent, submucous membrane contains serous-mucous glands, hyaline cartilage forms open circles. What organ has the described morphological features?