1. In a young man during exercise, the minute oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide emission equalled to 1000 ml. What substrates are oxidized in the cells of his body?
A sportsman spontaneously held breath for 40 seconds, which resulted in an increase in heart rate and systemic arterial pressure. Changes of these indicators are due to activation of the following regulatory mechanisms:
An animal experiment is aimed at studying the cardiac cycle. All the heart valves are closed. What phase of the cycle is characterized by this status?
4. Feces of a patient contain high amount of undissociated fats and have grayish-white color. Specify the cause of this phenomenon:
5. A patient has increased thickness of alveolar-capillary membrane caused by a pathologic process. The direct consequence will be reduction of the following value:
The processes of heat transfer in a naked person at room temperature have been studied. It was revealed that under these conditions the greatest amount of heat is transferred by:
A patient has a traumatic injury of sternocleidomastoid muscle. This has resulted in a decrease in the following value:
8. During an animal experiment, surgical damage of certain brain structures has caused deep prolonged sleep. What structure is most likely to cause such condition, if damaged?
When measuring total muscle action potential it was revealed that it was subject to the power-law relationship. The reason for this is that individual muscle fibers differ in:
A patient has insufficient blood supply to the kidneys, which has caused the development of pressor effect due to the constriction of arterial resistance vessels. This is the result of the vessels being greatly affected by the following substance:
Experimental stimulation of the sympathetic nerve branches that innervate the heart caused an increase in force of heart contractions because the membrane of typical cardiomyocytes permitted an increase in:
In a cat with decerebrate rigidity the muscle tone is to be decreased. This can be achieved by:
13. A patient complains of pain in the heart area during acute attack of gastric ulcer. What vegetative reflex can cause this painful feeling?
A female patient, having visited the factory premises with lots of dust in the air for the first time, has got cough and burning pain in the throat. What respiratory receptors, when irritated, cause this kind of reaction?
Since a patient has had myocardial infarction, his atria and ventricles contract independently from each other with a frequency of 60-70 and 35-40 per minute. Specify the type of heart block in this case:
In an experiment a dog had been conditioned to salivate at the sight of food and a flash of light. After conditioning the reflex, the light was then paired with the bell. The dog didn’t start to salivate. What type of inhibition was observed?
In course of an experiment there has been an increase in the nerve conduction velocity. This may be caused by an increase in the concentration of the following ions that are present in the solution around the cell:
A patient has severe blood loss caused by an injury. What kind of dehydration will be observed in this particular case?
A fixed-run taxi passenger has a sudden and expressed attack of tachycardia. A doctor travelling by the same taxi has managed to slow down his heart rate by pressing upon the eyeballs and thus causing the following reflex:
20. A 36-year-old female patient has a history of B2-hypovitaminosis. The most likely cause of specific symptoms (epithelial, mucosal, cutaneous, corneal lesions) is the deficiency of:
A blood drop has been put into a test tube with 0,3% solution of NaCl. What will happen to erythrocytes?
22. In a dysentery patient undergoing
treatment in the contagious isolation ward, a significant increase in packed cell volume has been observed (60%). What other value will be affected by this change?
23. A patient has the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve shifted to the left. What blood changes induce this condition?
When the curve shifts to the right, there is decrease affinity of hemoglobin for O2 (this facilitates unloading of O2 to tissues). An increase in all listed factors (including H+) causes a shift of the curve to the right. A decrease in the factors (including H+) causes a shift of the curve to the left. Fetal hemoglobin has higher affinity for O2 than adult hemoglobin, so its dissociation curve is shifted to the left.
Right shift (↑): acidosis(↑H+); CO2; exercise; 2,3-BPG; Altitude; Temperature. Hence left shift will be (↓): alkalosis(↓H+); hypocapnia(↓CO2); temperature decrease.
It has been experimentally proven that the excitation of the motor neurons of flexor muscles is accompanied by the inhibition of the motor neurons of extensor muscles. What type of inhibition underlies this phenomenon?
25. A man sitting with his eyes closed, undergoes electroencephalography. What rhythm will be recorded on the EEG if there is an audible signal?
Thermometry revealed that the temperature of the exposed skin is by 1-1,5oC lower than the temperature of the adjacent areas covered with clothing from natural fabrics. The reason for this is that the clothes reduce the heat loss through:
27. The temperature in a production room is 36oC . Relative air humidity is 80%. Under these conditions the human body transfers heat mainly through:
28. During the fight, a man had a cardiac arrest due to the strong blow to the upper region of the anterior abdominal wall. Which of the following mechanisms has led to the cardiac arrest?
An attack of tachycardia that occurred in a patient was stopped by pressing on his eyeballs. Which of the following reflexes underlies this phenomenon?
30. Workers of a conveyor workshop received recommendations for the effective organization of working time and higher working efficiency. What peculiarity of work in this workshop causes the greatest stress for the workers?
For the study of serum proteins various physical and physicochemical methods can be used. In particular, serum albumins and globulins can be separated by this method:
32. An animal has an increased tonus of extensor muscles. This is the result of enhanced information transmission to the motoneurons of the spinal cord through the following descending pathways:
A 19-year-old male was found to have an elevated level of potassium in the secondary urine. These changes might have been caused by the increase in the following hormone level:
34. To assess the effectiveness of breathing in patients, the indicator of functional residual capacity is used. It includes the following volumes:
It is required to evaluate the level of tissue excitability. For this purpose one should determine:
During ventricular systole, the cardiac muscle does not respond to additional stimulation because it is in the phase of:
A male working as a blacksmith has been tested for auditory acuity. The tests revealed 50% hearing loss in the low- frequency range and a near-normal auditory acuity in the high-frequency range. This condition has been caused by the damage to the following structures of the auditory system:
38. Anatomical dead space is the portion of the air that is left in the airways after expiration. The reduction of the anatomical dead space is typical for the following situation:
Analysis of the experimental spirogram of a 55-year-old person revealed a decrease in tidal volume and respiratory amplitude compared to the situation of ten years ago. The change in these indicators is caused by:
A 60 year old patient has impaired perception of high-frequency sounds. These changes were caused by damage of the following auditory analyzer structures:
41. Students who are taking examinations often have dry mouth. The mechanism that causes this state is the realization of the following reflexes:
The temperature of the ambient environment is 38oC and relative air humidity is 50%. What ways of heat emission provide maintaining a constant temperature of the human body?
43. A 30 year old woman has subnormal concentration of enzymes in the pancreatic juice. This might be caused by the hyposecretion of the following gastrointestinal hormone:
44. A month after surgical constriction of rabbit’s renal artery the considerable increase of systematic arterial pressure was observed. What of the following regulation mechanisms caused the animal’s pressure change?
45. A sportsman was examined after an intensive physical activity. The examination revealed disorder of movement coordination but the force of muscle contractions remained the same. It can be explained by retarded speed of excitement conduction through:
After a long training session a sportsman has developed fatigue accompanied by abrupt performance decrement. What link of the reflex arch was the fatigue initiated in?
Blood minute volume of a 30 year old woman at rest is 5 l/m. What blood volume is pumped through the pulmonary vessels per minute?
A patient under test was subjected to a moderate physical stress. His minute blood volume amounted 10 l/min. What blood volume was pumped through his lung vessels every minute?
Parodontitis is treated with calcium preparations and a hormone that stimulates tooth mineralization and inhibits tissue resorption. What hormone is it?
A man who is riding the carousel presents with increased heart rate, sweating, nausea. This condition is caused primarily by the stimulation of the following receptors:
Atria of an experimental animal were superdistended by blood that resulted in decreased reabsorption of Na+ and water in renal tubules. This can be explained by the influence of the following factor upon kidneys:
Power inputs of a man were measured. In what state was this man if his power inputs were lower than basal metabolism?
A man is being measured power inputs on an empty stomach, in the lying position, under conditions of physical and psychic rest at a comfortable temperature. Power inputs will reach the maximum at:
When measuring power inputs of a man by the method of indirect calorimetry the following results were obtained: 1000 ml oxygen consumption and 800 ml carbon dioxide liberation per minute. The man under examination has the following respiratory coefficient:
As a result of damage to certain structures of brainstem an animal lost orientation reflexes. What structures were damaged?
56. Emotional stress causes activation of hormone-sensitive triglyceride lipase in the adipocytes. What secondary mediator takes part in this process?
57. An isolated cell of human heart automatically generates excitement impulses with frequency of 60 times per minute. This cell was taken from the following heart structure:
During influenza epidemic 40% of pupils who didn’t go in for sports were affected by the disease, and among the pupils who regularly did physical exercises this index was only 20%. What adaptative mechanisms determined such a low sickness rate of pupils participating in the sports?
59. A 60 year old patient was found to have a dysfunction of main digestive enzyme of saliva. This causes the disturbance of primary hydrolysis of:
60. When water affects mucous membrane of the inferior nasal meatuses, this causes \\\"diver reflex\\\" that provokes:
Microelectrode technique allowed to register a potential following \"all-or-none\" law and being able of undecremental spreading. Specify this potential:
A patient got an injury of spinal marrow in a road accident that caused loss of tactile sensation, posture sense, vibration sense. What conduction tracts are damaged?
63. A doctor asked a patient to breath out fully after taking a normal breath. What muscles contract during such exhalation?
One of sections of central nervous system has layerwise arrangement of neurocytes. Among them there are cells of the following forms: stellate, fusiform, horizontal, pyramidal. What section of central nervous system is this structure typical for?
65. An aged man had raise of arterial pressure under a stress. It was caused by activation of:
A 30-year-old male patient with acute pancreatitis has been found to have a disorder of cavitary protein digestion. The reason for such condition can be the hyposynthesis and hyposecretion of the following enzyme:
67. During preparation of a patient to a heart surgery it was necessary to measure pressure in heart chambers. In one of them pressure varied from 0 mm Hg up to 120 mm Hg within one cardiac cycle. What heart chamber is it?
Pressure in each heart chambers:
-2 to +6
-2 to +6
Only the left ventricle can range from 0-120mmHg
Lung ventilation in a person is increased as a result of physical activity. Which of the following indices of the external respiration is much higher than in a state of rest?
As a result of activation of the ion channels of the external membrane the rest potential of an excitable cell has greatly increased. What channels were activated?
70. Which way of heat emission by the bodies of greenhouse workers is the most effective at the temperature of 36oC degrees and relative humidity of 70%?
A 35-year-old patient complains about having severe rhinitis and loss of sense of smell for a week. Objectively: the nasal cavity contains a lot of mucus covering the mucous membrane and blocking olfactory receptors. In what region of the nasal cavity are these receptors located?
72. During fighting a man had a cardiac arrest as a result of a hard blow to the upper region of anterior abdominal wall. Which of the described mechanisms might have provoked the cardiac arrest?
There is a severe time restriction for people’s staying at a height of over 800 m above the sea level without oxygen bombs. What is the life limiting factor in this case?
During an experiment the myotatic reflex has been studied in frogs. After extension in a skeletal muscle its reflectory contraction was absent. The reason for it might be a dysfunction of the following receptors:
After a craniocerebral trauma a patient lost the ability to execute learned purposeful movements (apraxia). The injury is most likely localized in the following region of the cerebral cortex:
Tissue inosytol triphosphates are generated as a result of the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate hydrolysis and act as secondary agents (mediators) in the mechanism of hormone action. Their effect in cells is directed at:
A newborn develops dyspepsia after the milk feeding. When the milk is substituted by the glucose solution the dyspepsia symptoms disappear. The newborn has the subnormal activity of the following enzyme:
A man having a hearing loss after a head trauma was delivered to the neurosurgery department. The cause of the hearing loss might be the damage of the following lobe of cerebral cortex:
79. Which muscle contraction will be observed in the upper extremity during holding (but not moving) a load in a certain position?
80. A patient consulted a doctor about a sensation of imbalance which appeared after a trauma. Which nerve is damaged?
81. During an experiment a skeletal muscle is stimulated by a series of electric impulses. What type of muscle contraction will be observed provided that each subsequent impulse comes in the period of shortening of the previous single muscle contraction?
ECG of a patient shows prolongation of T-wave. This is caused by deceleration in ventricles of:
A newborn child suffers from milk curdling in stomach, this means that soluble milk proteins (caseins) transform to insoluble proteins (paracaseins) by means of calcium ions and a certain enzyme. What enzyme takes part in this process?
84. Histological examination of a 40 year old man’s thymus revealed reduced share of parenchymatous elements, increased share of adipose and loose connective tissue, its enrichment with thymus bodies. The organ’s mass was unchanged. What is this phenomenon called?
People adapted to high external temperatures have such peculiarity: profuse sweating isn’t accompanied by loss of large volumes of sodium chloride. This is caused by the effect of the following hormone upon the perspiratory glands:
86. After destruction of CNS structures an animal lost orientative reflexes. What structure was destroyed?
A patient staggers and walks astraddle. He has hypomyotonia of arm and leg muscles, staccato speech. In what brain section is this affection localized?
During cerebellar lesions, there are disturbances in posture, equilibrium and movements. Disturbances in movements: ataxia, asynergia, asthenia (weak muscle contractions with characteristically rapid onset of muscle fatigue), Dysmetria, Intention tremor, astasia (loss of the capacity for sustained tetanic contractions), nystagmus, rebound phenomenon, dysarthria, adiadochokinesis, atonia (lack or impairment of muscle tone).
Vagus branches that innervate heart are being stimulated during an experiment. This caused reduction of heart rate due to the intensification of the following process (through the cell membrane of cardiac pacemaker):
89. Voluntary breath-holding caused increase of respiration depth and frequency. The main factor stimulating these changes of external respiration is:
90. Surface with an intact toad on it was inclined to the right. Tone of extensor muscles became reflectory higher due to the activation of the following receptors:
91. A patient got a trauma that caused dysfunction of motor centres regulating activity of head muscles. In what parts of cerebral cortex is the respective centre normally localized?
Primary motor area extends throughout the precentral gyrus and the adjoining lip of central sulcus. Areas 4 and 4S are present here. Muscles of various parts of the body are represented in area 4 in an inverted way from medial to lateral surface. Lower parts of the body are represented in the lateral (upper) surface and upper parts of the body are represented in the lateral (lower) surface. Order of representation from medial (superior, upper) to lateral (inferior, lower) surface: toes, ankle, knee, hip, trunk, shoulder, arm, elbow, wrist, hand, fingers and face. Area 4 is concerned with contraction of discrete muscles.
A patient was diagnosed with paralysis of facial and masticatory muscles. The haematoma is inside the genu of internal capsule. What conduction tract is damaged?
93. A young woman who entered a production department where it strongly smelt of paints and varnishes had a bronchospasm. This reflex was caused by irritation of the following receptors:
94. An isolated muscle fiber is under examination. It was established that the threshold of stimulation force became significantly lower. What is the cause of this phenomenon?
A patient consumed a lot of reach in proteins food that caused increase of rate of proteolytic enzymes of pancreatic juice. It is also accompanied by increase of rate of the following enzyme:
In course of an experiment thalamocortical tracts of an animal were cut. What type of sensory perception remained intact?
An infectious disease caused contractive activity of muscles that contract and dilate eye pupil (paralytic state). What functional eye system was damaged?
Brain tomography revealed a tumour in the region of red nucleus. What part of brain is damaged?
99. The temperature of the ambient environment is 38oC and relative air humidity is 50%. What ways of heat emission provide maintaining a constant temperature of the human body?
A man has normal sensitivity of his finger skin, however he doesn’t sense his wedding ring around the finger. What process induced by wearing of the ring has caused this phenomenon?
ECG study showed that the T -waves were positive in the standard extremity leads, their amplitude and duration were normal. The right conclusion would be that the following process runs normally in the heart ventricles:
A patient has a transversal laceration in the spinal cord. What respiratory changes will result from this?
In a healthy adult speed of the excitement conduction through the atrioventricular node is 0,02-0,05 m/sec. Atrioventricular delay enables:
Products of some proteins hydrolysis and modification are the biologically active substances called hormones. Lipotropin, corticotropin, melanotropin and endorphins are synthesized in the hypophysis of the following protein:
A middle-aged man went to a foreign country because he had been offered a job there. However he had been unemployed for quite a long time. What endocrine glands were exhausted most of all in this man?
Cooling of the human body in water is much more faster than in the air. What way of heat emission in water is much more effective?
After a surgery a 36-year-old woman was given an intravenous injection of concentrated albumin solution. This has induced intensified water movement in the following direction:
Examination of a patient suffering from chronic hepatitis revealed a significant decrease in the synthesis and secretion of bile acids. What process will be mainly disturbed in the patient’s bowels?
While determining power inputs of a patient’s organism it was established that the respiratory coefficient equaled 1,0. This means that in the cells of the patient the following substances are mainly oxidized:
110. During an experiment the dorsal roots of the spinal cord of an animal have been cut. What changes will be observed in the innervation zone?
111. A patient has osmotic pressure of blood plasma at the rate of 350 mOsmol/l (norm is 300 mOsmol/l). This will cause hypersecretion of the following hormone:
During an experiment vagus branches that innervate heart are being stimulated. This has stopped conduction of excitement from the atria to the ventricles. The reason for it are electrophysical changes in the following structures:
113. A man presents with increased heart rate, mydriatic pupils, dry mouth. This condition results from the activation of the following system of function regulation:
Vagus nerves of an experimental animal have been cut on the both sides. What respiratory changes will result from this?
115. A 60-year-old patient presents with weakened peristaltic activity of the bowels. Which of the following foodstuffs would stimulate peristalsis most of all?
A student takes notes of a lecture. Quality of his notes became significantly worse when his neighbours began talking. What type of conditional reflex inhibition was the cause of it?
117. ECG of a patient with hyperfunction of thyroid gland showed heart hurry. It is indicated by depression of the following ECG element:
118. As a result of destruction of certain brainstem structures an animal has lost its orientative reflexes in response to strong photic stimuli. What structures were destroyed?y
119. A patient with disturbed cerebral circulation has problems with deglutition. What part of brain was damaged?
120. Golgi complex exports substances from a cell due to the fusion of the membrane saccule with the cell membrane. The saccule contents flows out. What process is it?
Rest potential of a cell equals −80 mV . At what stage of action potential did the membrane potential equal +30 mV ?
122. A 35 year old man got an injury that caused complete disruption of spinal cord at the level of the first cervical segment. What respiration changes will be observed?
123. In course of an experiment a peripheral section of vagus of an expiremental animal is being stimulated. What changes will be observed?
124. A patient complains of dizziness and hearing loss. What nerve is damaged?
125. In course of an experiment a skeletal muscle is being stimulated by a series of electric impulses. What type of muscle contraction will arise, if every subsequent impulse comes in the period of relaxation of single muscle contraction?